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Editors --- "Notes for Contributors" [1997] AUYrBkIntLaw 13; (1997) 18 Australian Year Book of International Law 539


Preparation and Submission of Manuscript

The Australian Year Book of International Law is a refereed publication. Manuscripts are sent to two referees without identification of the author. For this reason, please ensure that your name is on a sheet that can be detached from the rest of the manuscript.

1. Please submit both typewritten and electronic copy of the manuscript indicating the operating system and word processing package used.

2. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of all quotations, proper names and references.

3. Page proofs are returned to the author so that any changes made during editing can be checked. Alterations of substance cannot be made at this stage, once the page layout has been finalised.

4. Please provide a brief autobiographical note which should be starred (*) and appear as the first footnote.

Notes on Style


Headings and subheadings within the article should be indicated as follows (using numbers and lettering only if necessary):

Level 1

Centred, Title Case, Bold
Level 2
I., II., III...
Centred, Title Case, Bold
Level 3
(a), (b), (c)...
Left margin, sentence case, bold.
Level 4
(i), (ii), (iii)...
Left margin, sentence case, italics
Level 5
a., b., c...
Left margin, a full sentence, bold, first line of and running into paragraph.


Use a colon to introduce a run-in list set off from the text, and semicolons at the end of each item, as following:

(i) make a neat list, easily changed to suit the page margins, setting the text off from the numbers by tabs, not spaces on the spacebar;

(ii) roman numerals are best used so that the numbering will not clash with any headings; and

(iii) note that there is no need to use capitals at the beginning of each part of the list if it is part of the one sentence—such as this.


Do not use “etc”, “ie” or “eg” within the text. Short forms should, however, be used in the footnotes.

The first time a full name, which will later be indicated by a short form, is used, give the full name followed by the short form in brackets, as follows:

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).


In general, proper names should be capitalised, for: national, religious or ethnic groups; organisations; geographical names; historical events; commercial names. Do not capitalise generic or plural references to proper names. “State” is always capitalised when referring to both an international and national state.

Use capitals when referring, within the text, to a specified chapter, section, or appendix of this or any other text.


Numbers up to and including ten should be in words, while figures should be used for 11 and greater: however, figures should be used for all measurements. Money amounts should be clearly identified by currency. Commas, not full stops or spaces should be used in large numbers (4,325,687 sq km). Spans of figures use two digits after an en-dash: pp 25–29, pp 265–67 but note pp 3–6 and pp 399–401. Other examples: 1986–88, mid–1970 (en-dash); 1990s; 21 May 1995; twentieth century.


Should be used for case names (the Reservations case); book titles; journal titles and languages other than English including Latin, for example: inter alia, jus cogens, pacta sunt servanda.


Use double quotation marks for quotes within the text, single quotation marks for a quotation within a quotation.

A direct quotation is introduced with a comma and begins with a capital letter if it is a complete sentence.

Long quotations running to four or more lines of text—exceeding approximately thirty words—should be indented from the margins.

Alterations/Additions to quotes

Words added by you to a quote should be enclosed in square brackets.

Indicate any obvious errors in the quoted passage by placing [sic] immediately after the error. Exceptions to this are typing errors, which should be changed but not indicated.

Do not use square brackets at the beginning of a quotation unless it is enclosed within a sentence and the original punctuation cannot be used.

Do not change the style of the text being quoted, especially spelling or capitalisation, to suit the style of this book: reproduce the original exactly.


An ellipsis “...” marks the omission of words in quoted matter. Use only three stops—even at the end of a sentence where an additional full stop would be expected.

Do not use at the beginning of a quoted section. Only use at the end of a quoted section if the final sentence is incomplete.

Some Preferred Spelling

Generally -ise endings are preferred to -ize (authorise, legalise, recognise).

in so far
per cent


All references should appear as footnotes, not in the text. The footnote number should be inserted after the punctuation mark. If a footnote contains several references they should be separated by a semicolon.

Abbreviations in the footnotes should contain no full stops, and a space should follow the abbreviation.

ch 1
n 1, nn 3–7
footnote(s) in this text
vol, vols
volume(s)-except at the beginning of a sentence
fn2, fns 4 and 5
footnote(s) in any other text


Articles and Periodicals

Surname and initial(s) “Title of Article” (year) volume number Title of Journal in Full page number for starting page of article followed by exact citation if necessary.

Bell DA, “The East Asian Challenge to Human Rights: Reflections on an East-West Dialogue” (1996) 18 Human Rights Quarterly 641 at 649.

Exception: Australian Year Book of International Law is abbreviated to Aust YBIL.

If you wish to refer to more than one exact place, use “114 at 161–64 and 186”. This is preferable to the inexact “at 161 et seq” (164ff should not in any case be used).


Note: Place of publication and publisher details not required.

Surname and initial(s), Title (including subtitle after colon), edition, volume, page cited:

Brownlie I, Principles of Public International Law, 5th ed (1998) p 10.

For essays in collective works: surname and initial(s), “Title of Essay” followed by editor(s) surname and initial(s), Title of Book (year), page number of first page of essay followed by exact citation if necessary.

Bayefsky AF, “Making the Human Rights Treaties Work” in Henkin H and Hargrove JL eds, Human Rights: An Agenda for the Next Century (1994) 229 at 235.


Citation should be for an authorised reference. The first time a case is mentioned the names of the parties must appear in full with the details of the law report series. Subsequent references by case name can use an abbreviated name: “Mabo v Queensland (No 2), (1992) 175 CLR 1 at 15, 31−32” may later be referred to as the “Mabo case”.

Australian Capital Television Pty Ltd v Commonwealth [1992] HCA 45; (1992) 177 CLR 106 at 140 (Mason CJ), 154−55 (Brennan J), 211 (Gaudron J), cf 240 (McHugh J).

Note: Law Reports should be abbreviated and not italicised:

CLR (High Court); FCR (Federal Court); NSWLR, VR, SASR, WAR (authorised State reports) ; ILC, ECHR, FLR, A Crim R, LGRA, ICJ Plead, ICJ Rep, PCIJ

Note: Do not use “p” for page in Law Report citations.

International Court cases should be as they appear within the official citation except that ICJ Reports is abbreviated to ICJ Rep and cited thus:

South West Africa case, ICJ Rep 1950, p 12 at 15.
Request for Advisory Opinion Concerning the Status of Eastern Carelia (1923), PCIJ Ser B, No 5, p 27.

Note: Use “Re” not “re”. Do not use “The”, “and Anor”, “and others”, “and another”, “The King v” “The Queen v” in case names.

Conference Papers, Proceedings

Surname and initial(s) [or name of organisation if no author indicated] “Title of Conference Paper” Title of Conference, Place of Conference, Date of Conference.

Orford A, “A Radical Agenda for Reforming the Security Council”, Australian and New Zealand Society of International Law Third Annual Meeting, Canberra, 7–9 July 1995.

Published as proceedings:

Orford A, “A Radical Agenda for Collective Security Reform”, Australian and New Zealand Society of International Law Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting (1995), p 71.


House of Representatives, Debates, vol 188 (1993), p 396.
Senate, Debates, vol 160 (1993), p 3170.

Newspapers and Magazines

Retain “The” in the title only if a single-word title would otherwise result: The Age, The Bulletin, The Times, but International Herald Tribune, Sydney Morning Herald. Place of publication is not required.

Kent A, “Power Play Makes Light of Diplomacy”, The Australian, (20 April 1997), p 11.


No italics for names of Acts, Ordinances, Regulations, Rules or Bills. Commonwealth legislation indicated by (Cth) as follows:

Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act 1986 (Cth).


No italics for international treaties, conventions or protocols. The first time a treaty is mentioned the title must appear in full. Name of Treaty/Agreement (Year Signed/Ratified) Source where full text can be found.

Convention on the Conservation of the Living Resources of the Southeast Atlantic 1969, 801 UNTS 101, Article XVII(5).


Use “n” and “nn” (or the full word “Note” if it is the first word of the footnote), “above” and “below” to indicate cross-references to other footnotes. Try to use “see text at n 34” rather than an internal page number for a reference to text.

Use “ibid, at 35”, or “ibid, p 25” in place of the immediately preceding full reference. If an author is cited more than once in the same footnote, use an abbreviated name of the book or article at subsequent cross-references, such as “Brownlie, Principles, n 34 above, p 2” or “Bell, “The East Asian Challenge to Human Rights”, n 2 above, at 649”.

For further information

Refer to: Australian Government Publishing Service, Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers, 5th ed (1994); Peters P, Australian English Style Guide (1995); and the Macquarie Dictionary.

To obtain a full copy of the Australian Year Book of International Law Style Guide or any further inquiries should be referred to the:

Assistant Editor
Australian Year Book of International Law
Centre for International and Public Law
Faculty of Law
Australian National University
Canberra ACT 0200
Phone: 61 6 249 3090
Fax: 61 6 249 0150

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