(1) A person is not an associate of another person by virtue of section 12 or subsection 15(1), or by virtue of subsection 15(2) as it applies in relation to section 12 or subsection 15(1), merely because of one or more of the following:
(a) one gives advice to the other, or acts on the other's behalf, in the proper performance of the functions attaching to a professional capacity or a business relationship;
(b) one, a client, gives specific instructions to the other, whose ordinary business includes dealing in financial products, to acquire financial products on the client's behalf in the ordinary course of that business;
(c) one had sent, or proposes to send, to the other an offer under a takeover bid for shares held by the other;
(d) one has appointed the other, otherwise than for valuable consideration given by the other or by an associate of the other, to vote as a proxy or representative at a meeting of members, or of a class of members, of a body corporate.
(2) For the purposes of proceedings under this Act in which it is alleged that a person was an associate of another person by virtue of paragraph 13(b) or (e), the first-mentioned person is not taken to have been an associate of the other person in relation to a matter by virtue of that paragraph unless it is proved that the first-mentioned person knew, or ought to have known, at that time, the material particulars of that matter.