(1) In determining whether a financial benefit is given for the purposes of this Chapter:
(a) give a broad interpretation to financial benefits being given, even if criminal or civil penalties may be involved; and
(b) the economic and commercial substance of conduct is to prevail over its legal form; and
(c) disregard any consideration that is or may be given for the benefit, even if the consideration is adequate.
(2) Giving a financial benefit includes the following:
(a) giving a financial benefit indirectly, for example, through 1 or more interposed entities;
(b) giving a financial benefit by making an informal agreement, oral agreement or an agreement that has no binding force;
(c) giving a financial benefit that does not involve paying money (for example by conferring a financial advantage).
(3) The following are examples of giving a financial benefit to a related party:
(a) giving or providing the related party finance or property;
(b) buying an asset from or selling an asset to the related party;
(c) leasing an asset from or to the related party;
(d) supplying services to or receiving services from the related party;
(e) issuing securities or granting an option to the related party;
(f) taking up or releasing an obligation of the related party.