Commonwealth Numbered Regulations - Explanatory Statements

[Index] [Search] [Download] [Related Items] [Help]


CIVIL AVIATION AMENDMENT REGULATIONS 2003 (NO. 5) 2003 NO. 201

EXPLANATORY STATEMENT

Statutory Rules 2003 No. 201

Issued by the authority of the Minister for Transport and Regional Services

Civil Aviation Act 1988

Civil Aviation Amendment Regulations 2003 (No. 5)

Section 98 of the Civil Aviation Act 1988 provides that the Governor-General may make regulations for the purposes of the Act, including inter alia regulations imposing penalties for contraventions of the regulations: paragraph 98 (3) (p).

The purpose of the Regulations is to ensure that the existing offence provisions in the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988 continue to operate in the same manner as they did prior to the application of the Criminal Code Act 1995 (the Criminal Code) to all Commonwealth legislation on 15 December 2001.

Chapter 2 of the Criminal Code contains general principles of criminal responsibility that apply to the offence provisions contained in the Criminal Code and all other Commonwealth offence provisions. If regulations containing existing offence provisions are not amended to have regard to the Criminal Code, the Criminal Code may alter the interpretation of those offence provisions.

Chapter 2 adopts the common law approach of subjective fault based principles. It clarifies the traditional distinction of dividing offences into actus reus (the physical act, now referred to as the physical element) and mens rea (what the defendant thought or intended, now referred to as the fault element).

The prosecution bears the onus of proving each of the elements of an offence. Each offence must contain at least one physical element, and for every physical element of an offence, the prosecution must also prove a corresponding fault element. If legislation containing an offence provision does not specify a fault element for a physical element of the offence, the Criminal Code applies a default fault element under Section 5.6 of the Criminal Code.

In relation to an offence that operates as a strict liability offence, a fault element can only be dispensed with in relation to the offence (or in relation to a particular element of an offence) if the offence specifies that it is a strict liability offence (or that a particular element is a strict liability element). Strict liability offences are offences where proof of a fault element is not required. The defence of mistake of fact is available for a strict liability offence (or a strict liability element of an offence). In the absence of express reference to the fact that an offence is a strict liability offence, a court will be obliged by the Criminal Code to interpret the offence as a fault offence rather than a strict liability offence, and will require proof of fault elements in relation to the physical elements of the offence.

The Regulations amend the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988.

The Regulations:

       specify that an offence is one of strict liability;

       separate defences from offences and identify the evidential burden in relation to the defence;

       restructure offence provisions to clarify that provisos are elements of the offence;

       clarify the physical elements of an offence;

       omit general offence provisions;

       clarify the actor for an offence;

       remove fault elements to attract Criminal Code default fault elements;

       clarify the meaning of phrases relating to time period;

       substitute more appropriate expressions for less clear ones, to give greater clarity to the offence provision;

       omit offence or defence provisions that have equivalent Criminal Code provisions;

       introduce numbering for, or renumber, certain provisions;

       place or reword the applicable penalty after each offence provision;

       provide a definition for "engage in conduct"; and

       substitute references to repealed provisions of the Crimes Act 1914 with equivalent Criminal Code provisions.

The Criminal Code harmonisation process has received prior approval of the Office of Regulation Review (ORR). In respect of those amendments that are beyond the harmonisation process, the ORR has determined that they are mechanical and minor in nature, do not have a direct or significant impact on business and do not restrict competition, and therefore a Regulation Impact Statement is not required.

Details of the Regulations are set out in the Attachment.

The Regulations commenced on gazettal.

ATTACHMENT

Civil Aviation Amendment Regulations 2003 (No. 5)

DETAILS OF THE AMENDING REGULATIONS

Regulation 1 - Name of Regulations

Regulation 1 names the Regulations as the Civil Aviation Amendment Regulations 2003 (No. 5).

Regulation 2 - Commencement

Regulation 2 provides that the Regulations commence on gazettal.

Regulation 3 - Amendment of Civil Aviation Regulations 1988

The Regulations specified in Schedule 1 are amended as follows:

1.       Ensuring strict liability offences remain strict liability offences

The Regulations provide that each of the offences (or particular elements of offences) listed in Table 1 below will be offences (or elements) of strict liability.

An offence of strict liability is an offence where no fault elements apply to the physical elements of the offence. A fault element can only be dispensed with in relation to an offence (or in relation to a particular element of an offence) if the offence provision specifies that it is a strict liability offence (or that a particular element is a strict liability element). The defence of mistake of fact is available for a strict liability offence (or a strict liability element of an offence). In the absence of express reference that an offence (or element of an offence) is strict liability, a court will be obliged by the Criminal Code Act 1995 to interpret the offence (or element of the offence) as a fault offence (or fault element) rather than a strict liability offence (or fault element), and will require proof of fault elements in relation to the physical elements of the offence (or element of the offence).

The regulations identified in Table 1 below currently provide for strict liability offences (or contain strict liability elements of offences). The amendments ensure that the offences (or elements of the offences) continue to operate as strict liability offences following application of the Criminal Code.

Table 1 - Strict liability offences

Column 1

Column 2

Item of Schedule 1
of proposed Regulations

Provision of
regulations being amended

3

6A

6

13C

9

13D

11

13E

12

13F

14

13G

17

13I

19

13R

21

29

23

30

24

30

26

30B

27

31

29

31

32

33B

33

33F

35

33I

37

34

39

34

41

35

42

36A

43

37

45

38

47

39

50

41

53

42U

54

42V

61

42W

63

42X

64

42ZA

65

42ZC

67

42ZD

68

42ZE

73

42ZN

75

42ZP

78

42ZV

79

42ZW

80

42ZY

81

42ZZ

83

42ZZA

86

43

87

43A

89

43B

90

44

92

46

94

47

97

50A

100

50B

101

50C

103

50D

104

50F

106

51A

109

51B

112

52

113

52B

114

53

115

55

119

57

123

58

125

59

126

60

127

61

128

5.04

130

5.05

132

5.06

140

5.07

142

5.11

143

5.16

144

5.20

145

5.21

146

5.25

147

5.26F

148

5.29

151

5.34

152

5.35

153

5.37

155

5.38

159

5.40

161

5.42

162

5.44

163

5.47

165

5.50

166

5.51

167

5.52

169

5.53

170

5.54

171

5.55

172

5.56

173

5.58

177

5.66

180

5.67

182

5.68

184

5.69

187

5.70

189

5.71

190

5.72

193

5.73

194

5.74

198

5.75

200

5.81

203

5.82

206

5.86

208

5.91

211

5.92

214

5.94

216

5.99

219

5.100

222

5.102

224

5.108

227

5.109

228

5.110

231

5.119

233

5.124

235

5.125

236

5.126

239

5.128

241

5.133

244

5.134

245

5.135

248

5.137

250

5.141

252

5.143

254

5.144

257

5.147

259

5.154

262

5.155

263

5.156

264

5.157

267

5.164

269

5.169

272

5.170

273

5.171

275

5.178

278

5.179

279

5.180

281

5.184

282

5.185

284

5.186

286

5.187

288

5.191

291

5.192

294

5.194

296

5.195

298

5.195D

300

5.195E

302

5.199

304

5.203

306

6.08

307

6.12

308

6.13

309

6.16A

310

78

312

79

314

80

316

82

329

83

330

83C

334

84

335

89A

338

89D

340

89H

342

89J

343

89K

345

89L

346

89M

348

89N

350

89O

352

89P

354

89Q

357

89R

358

89S

359

89T

361

89U

362

89V

363

89X

365

89Y

366

89ZA

367

89ZD

370

92

378

92A

379

94

380

95

381

96

383

99AA

384

99A

389

100

391

105

392

120

394

132

399

133

401

135

402

135A

403

138

405

139

410

140

412

141

413

143 & 144

415

149

416

150

417

151 & 152

420

153

424

155

425

156

427

157

429

158

431

159

433

161

434

162

435

163

438

163AA

446

166

449

167

452

168

458

169

460

171

464

172

465

173

468

174A

471

174B

472

174C

474

174D

475

175

477

175A

479

176

480

177

482

179

484

179A

486

180

488

181

489

182

491

183

492

195

494

196

498

197

501

198

502

199 & 200

503

203

507

207

510

208

512

209

515

210

517

213

519

214

522

215

524

216

526

217

531

218

535

219

537

220

539

221

540

222

542

223

543

224

545

225

547

226

550

227

552

228

554

229

556

230

559

231

561

232

563

233

566

234

571

235

573

235A

574

238

575

239

577

241

580

242

582

243

584

244

586

245

588

246

590

247

591

248

593

249

596

250

598

251

599

252

602

252A

603

253

605

254

607

255

609

256

611

256AA

613

256A

614

257

618

258

621

259

623

260

624

262

625

262AC

627

262AD

628

262AE

630

262AF

631

262AG

634

262AH

635

262AI

637

262AJ

643

262AL

653

262AM

654

262AN

658

262AO

667

262AP

671

262AQ

675

262AR

676

262AS

678

262TA

683

282

686

286

687

288

688

289

689

291

690

292

692

294

695

298B

698

299

699

301

701

302

702

304

703

305

704

308

705

309A

706

310B

707

322

2.       Ignorance of the law is no excuse

In the regulations identified in Table 2 below, the prosecution may be required to prove, as part of the offence, that the defendant had knowledge of a provision of statute law or subordinate legislation referred to in the offence provision. It is generally very difficult for the prosecution to establish such knowledge and is contrary to the usual maxim that ignorance of the law is no excuse. Subsections 9.3 (1), and 9.4 (1) of the Criminal Code provide that mistake or ignorance of statute law, or subordinate legislation, is no excuse. However, subsections 9.3 (2) and 9.4 (2) provide that subsections 9.3 (1) and 9.4 (1) do not apply if the particular statute law or subordinate legislation is expressly or impliedly to the contrary effect.

To ensure that the provisions are not interpreted to indicate contrary intention for the purposes of section 9.4 of the Criminal Code, the Regulations amend the offence provisions identified in Table 2 below to provide that strict liability applies to that part of the physical element of conduct that raises the knowledge of law issues. The defence of mistake of fact will then apply.

Table 2 - Ignorance of the law - strict liability

Column 1

Column 2

Item of Schedule 1
of proposed Regulations

Provision of
regulations being amended

141

5.09

301

5.198

3.       Restructuring offences to clarify defences

The Regulations amend the offence provisions identified in Table 3 below, to clarify that the defence to the offence does not form part of the elements of the offence for the prosecution to establish. The amendments are achieved by removing the defence from the offence provisions and inserting them in new stand-alone defence provisions, each of which is followed by a Note to the effect that the defendant bears an evidential burden of proof. The Criminal Code requires proof of defences at an evidential standard unless the law creating the offence expressly imposes proof at the higher legal standard.

Table 3 - Clarify defences

Column 1

Column 2

Item of Schedule 1
of proposed Regulations

Provision of
regulations being amended

3

6A

6

13C

9

13D

11

13E

12

13F

14

13G

17

13I

19

13R

22

30 (3A)

23

30

28

31 (3A)

29

31

30

33B (4)

32

33B

33

33F

34

33I (3)

35

33I

36

34 (3A)

37

34

40

35 (7A)

41

35

154

5.38 (2) (b)

155

5.38

171

5.55

176

5.66 (3)

177

5.66

190

5.72

313

80 (2)

314

80

336

89D (4)

338

89D

340

89H

343

89K

346

89M

350

89O

360

89U (2)

361

89U

362

89V

363

89X

365

89Y

366

89ZA

367

89ZD

372

92A (1)

378

92A

379

94

384

99A (5)

404

139 (1)

405

139

413

143 & 144

414

149 (1)

415

149

417

151 & 152

422

155 (3)

424

155

469

174B (1)

471

174B

478

176 (2A)

479

176

481

179

482

179

494

196

521

215 (3A)

522

215

569

235 (6)

571

235

594

250

596

250

597

251 (1) (c)

598

251

616

258

617

258 (a) & (b)

618

258

660

262AP (4)

661

262AP (6)

667

262AP

705

309A

4.       Restructuring offence provisions to clarify that provisos are elements of the offences

The Regulations amend the offence provisions identified in Table 4 below, to clarify that the proviso is intended to form part of the elements of the offence for the prosecution to establish. The amendments are achieved by redrafting the offences so that the use of the terms "unless", "except" or "other than" are removed and replaced by terminology that makes clear that the wording concerned forms part of the offence. The amendments are beyond the general Government policy authority in relation to harmonisation of Commonwealth offences with the Criminal Code. However, they are preferable in that it is Commonwealth Criminal Law Policy that criminal offence provisions should be structured to provide certainty and clarity in relation to the scope and effect of each offence, and to give consistency as to how criminal offences are to be interpreted by the courts. The Office of Regulation Review (ORR) has determined that the amendments are mechanical and minor in nature, do not have a direct or significant impact on business and do not restrict competition, and therefore a Regulation Impact Statement is not required.

Table 4 - Provisos as elements of offences

Column 1

Column 2

Item of Schedule 1
of proposed Regulations

Provision of
regulations being amended

42

36A (3)

47

39 (2)

52

42U

55

42W (2)

56

42W (4)

57

42W (4) (a) (ii)

58

42W (4) (b)

59

42W (4) (c) (iv)

60

42W (d)

62

42X (1)

65

42ZC (2)

66

42ZD (1)

71

42ZN

72

42ZN (a) (iii)

74

42ZP (1)

76

42ZV (3)

77

42ZV (3) (a)

84

43 (6)

85

43 (7)

95

48 (3)

128

5.04 (1)

129

5.05 (1)

131

5.06 (1)

134

5.07 (1)

136

5.07 (2)

137

5.07 (2)

138

5.07 (3)

139

5.07 (3)

152

5.35

153

5.37

156

5.40 (1)

158

5.40 (2)

160

5.42 (2)

174

5.66 (2)

175

5.66 (2) (a)

178

5.67

179

5.67 (a), (b), (c), (d), (e) and (f)

181

5.68

183

5.69

186

5.70

188

5.71

191

5.73

192

5.73 (a) and (b)

195

5.75 (2)

196

5.75 (3)

197

5.75 (3) (a)

199

5.81 (1)

201

5.82

202

5.82 (a)

204

5.86 (2)

205

5.86 (3)

207

5.91 (1)

209

5.92 (1)

210

5.92 (1) (a)

212

5.94 (2)

213

5.94 (3)

215

5.99 (1)

217

5.100 (1)

218

5.100 (1) (a)

220

5.102 (2)

221

5.102 (3)

223

5.108 (1)

225

5.109

226

5.109 (a) (iii)

229

5.119 (2)

230

5.119 (3)

232

5.124 (1)

234

5.125 (1)

237

5.128 (2)

238

5.128 (3)

240

5.133 (1)

242

5.134 (1)

243

5.134 (1) (a) (iii)

246

5.137 (2)

247

5.137 (3)

249

5.141 (1)

251

5.143 (1)

253

5.144 (1)

255

5.147 (2)

256

5.147 (3)

258

5.154 (1)

260

5.155 (1)

261

5.155 (1) (a) (iii)

263

5.156

265

5.164 (2)

266

5.164 (3)

268

5.169 (1)

270

5.170

271

5.170 (a) (iii)

274

5.178 (1)

276

5.179 (1)

277

5.179 (1) (a) (iii)

280

5.184 (2)

282

5.185

285

5.187 (1)

286

5.191 (1)

289

5.192 (1)

290

5.192 (1) (a) (ii)

292

5.194 (2)

293

5.194 (3)

297

5.195D

299

5.195E (1)

304

5.203

317

83 (1)

318

83 (1) (a) and (c)

319

83 (1) (d)

320

83 (1) (d) (iv)

321

83 (1) (e)

324

83 (2) (a)

325

83 (2) (b)

327

83 (3)

331

84 (1) (a)

332

84 (1) (b)

333

84 (1) (c)

368

92 (1)

369

92 (1) (a), (b) and (c)

374

92A (4)

375

92A (4) (a)

387

100 (2)

392

120

393

132 (3)

406

140 (5)

411

141 (2)

418

153

419

153 (a)

425

156 (1)

440

166 (1) (d)

441

166 (1) (d) (i)

442

166 (1) (e)

443

166 (1) (g)

461

172 (1)

462

172 (2)

463

172 (2) (a) and (b)

470

174B (2)

473

174D (2)

476

175A (1)

483

179A (2)

514

210

546

226 (1)

548

227 (1) and (2)

549

227 (3)

551

228

553

229

555

230 (1)

557

231 (2)

562

233 (1)

563

233 (2)

564

234 (1)

565

234 (2)

570

235 (8)

600

252A (1)

606

255 (3)

612

256A (1)

619

259 (1)

623

260

625

262AC (1)

638

262AL (1)

639

262AL (1) (a)

640

262AL (1) (b)

641

262AL (5)

642

262AL (7)

644

262AM (1)

645

262AM (1) (a)

646

262AM (1) (b)

647

262AM (4)

648

262AM (4) (a)

649

262AM (4) (b) (ii)

650

262AM (10)

651

262AM (12)

652

262AM (13)

654

262AN (3)

655

262AO (1)

656

262AO (2)

657

262AO (4)

659

262AP (1)

662

262AP (8)

663

262AP (8) (a)

664

262AP (8) (b) (ii)

665

262AP (11)

666

262AP (12)

668

262AQ (1)

669

262AQ (3)

670

262AQ (3)

672

262AR (1)

673

262AR (3)

674

262AR (3)

676

262AS

677

262TA (3)

680

282 (1)

681

282 (3)

693

298B (1)

5.       Restructuring offence provisions to clarify the physical elements of the offence

The Regulations restructure, and reword using simpler language, the offence provisions identified in Table 5 below, to clarify the physical elements (conduct, circumstance and result) of the offences, or to make clear that the provisions, marked with an asterisk (*), provide for separate offences. The amendments do not alter the operation or the effect of the offence provisions. The amendments to the provisions marked with an asterisk (*) are beyond the general Government policy authority in relation to harmonisation of Commonwealth offences with the Criminal Code. However, they are preferable in that it is Commonwealth Criminal Law Policy that criminal offence provisions should be structured to provide certainty and clarity in relation to the scope and effect of each offence, and to give consistency as to how criminal offences are to be interpreted by the courts. The ORR has determined that the amendments are mechanical and minor in nature, do not have a direct or significant impact on business and do not restrict competition, and therefore a Regulation Impact Statement is not required. The provisions marked with double asterisks (**) are amended so as to proscribe the actions of a person whose conduct has the result of altering, or destroying, mutilating or defacing, as the case may be. Constructing the offence in this form better identifies the physical elements of conduct and result (see further the amendments referred to in paragraph 14 and Table 14 below).

Table 5 - Clarify physical elements of the offence

Column 1

Column 2

Item of Schedule 1
of proposed Regulations

Provision of
regulations being amended

4

13C (1)

15

13I (1)

42

36A (3)*

64

42ZA (2)

96

49 and 50

100

50B (5)**

116

57 (1)

117

57 (1)

118

57 (2)**

120

57 (3)

121

58 (1)**

124

58 (2)**

124

58 (3)

133

5.07 (1) (a)

315

82 (1)

323

83 (2)

373

92A (3)*

374

92A (4)*

376

92A (4)*

377

92A (5)*

380

95 (3)

386

100 (2)

388

100

390

105

393

132 (3)

406

140 (5)*

407

140 (6)

408

140 (6) (a)

439

166 (1) (a)

458

169

489

182*

527

218 (1)*

528

218 (1)*

529

218*

532

219*

533

219 (a)*

534

219*

535

219*

548

227 (1) and (2)

563

233 (3)

574

238

594

250 (1)*

608

256 (2)

623

260

691

294 (1)

699

301 (2)**

6.       Omission of general offence provisions

The Regulations omit the general offence provisions identified in Table 6 below. Such general offence provisions can be difficult to interpret under the Criminal Code in relation to the different offence provisions to which the general offence provision applies. The amendments are beyond the general Government authority in relation to harmonisation of Commonwealth offences with the Criminal Code. However, they are preferable in that it is Commonwealth Criminal Law Policy that criminal offence provisions should be structured to provide certainty and clarity in relation to the scope and effect of each offence, and to give consistency as to how criminal offences are to be interpreted by the courts. The ORR has determined that the amendments are mechanical and minor in nature, do not have a direct or significant impact on business and do not restrict competition, and therefore a Regulation Impact Statement is not required.

Table 6 - General offence provisions

Column 1

Column 2

Item of Schedule 1
of proposed Regulations

Provision of
regulations being amended

459

169A

504

205A

679

281

7.       Amendments consequential to omission of general offence provisions - clarify the actor for an offence

The Regulations amend the regulations identified in Table 7 below, as a consequence of the omission of the general offence provisions identified in Table 6 above, so as to clarify the actor for an offence.

Table 7 - Clarify the actor for an offence

Column 1

Column 2

Item of Schedule 1
of proposed Regulations

Provision of
regulations being amended

50

41 (2)

371

92A (1)

374

92A (4)

376

92A (4)

385

100 (1)

386

100 (2)

395

133 (1)

396

133 (1) (a)

397

133 (1) (d)

398

133 (1) (e)

400

135

404

139 (1)

406

140 (5)

418

153

421

155 (1)

425

156 (1)

426

157 (1)

432

161 (2)

434

162 (9)

435

163 (1) and (2)

436

163AA (1)

437

163AA (1) (a) and (b)

450

168 (1)

453

169 (1), (2) and (3)

454

169 (4)

456

169 (5) (a)

465

173 (3)

466

174A (1A)

467

174A (2)

468

174A (5)

469

174B (1)

470

174B (2)

473

174D (2)

480

177 (5)

483

179A (2)

485

180

489

182

492

195 (1), (2), (3) and (4)

493

196

494

196 (7)

495

197

496

197 (4)

499

198

502

199 and 200

503

203

505

207 (1) and (2)

506

207 (3)

508

208

509

208

511

209

520

215 (2)

525

217 (2)

540

222 (4)

561

232 (5)

567

235 (4)

568

235 (5)

569

235 (6)

570

235 (8)

572

235A (2)

573

235A (7)

574

238

576

241 (2)

579

242 (2)

592

249 (1)

600

252A (1)

601

252A (1) (a) and (b)

615

258

619

259 (1)

623

260 (1) and (2)

625

262AC (1)

631

262AG (2)

689

291

8.       Remove "knowingly or recklessly" - inappropriate fault elements for physical element of conduct

The Regulations amend the provisions identified in Table 8 below, to remove the fault elements of "knowingly or recklessly", or the term "knowingly", in relation to the physical element of conduct. It is not possible under the Criminal Code to apply these fault elements to the physical element of conduct. These fault elements can only be applied to the physical elements of circumstance or result (see Part 2.2, Division 5 of the Criminal Code). Once omitted, the fault element of intention will apply to the physical element of conduct in the offence.

Table 8 - Remove "knowingly or recklessly"

Column 1

Column 2

Item of Schedule 1
of proposed Regulations

Provision of
regulations being amended

107

51A (3)

149

5.33 (1)

150

5.33 (2)

303

5.201

305

5.205

694

298B (1) (c)

9.       Clarify the meaning of the phrase "as soon as practicable"

The Regulations amend the regulations identified in Table 9 below, to clarify the meaning of the phrase "as soon as practicable", by specifying a period of time as an element of the offence. At the same time, the identified regulations are also reworded so as to make the language clearer. The amendments to clarify the meaning of "as soon as practicable" are beyond the general Government policy authority in relation to harmonisation of Commonwealth offences with the Criminal Code. However, they are preferable in that it is Commonwealth Criminal Law Policy that criminal offence provisions should be structured to provide certainty and clarity in relation to the scope and effect of each offence, and to give consistency as to how criminal offences are to be interpreted by the courts. The ORR has determined the amendments are mechanical and minor in nature, do not have a direct or significant impact on business and do not restrict competition, and therefore a Regulation Impact Statement is not required.

Table 9 - Clarify "as soon as practicable"

Column 1

Column 2

Item of Schedule 1
of proposed Regulations

Provision of
regulations being amended

2

6A (3)

33

33F (2)

48

40

51

42

69

42ZJ (3)

344

89L

347

89N

409

140 (6) (b)

10.       Remove "standards specified" or "circumstances specified"

The Regulations amend the offence provisions identified in Table 10 below, to remove the expression "standards specified", or "circumstances specified", and substitute in its place "directions issued". This is because the subregulation appearing beneath the offence provision provides for issuance of directions, and the proposed amendments therefore gives clarity to the offence provision. The amendments are beyond the general Government authority in relation to harmonisation of Commonwealth offences with the Criminal Code. However, they are preferable in that it is Commonwealth Criminal Law Policy that criminal offence provisions should be structured to provide certainty and clarity in relation to the scope and effect of each offence, and to give consistency as to how criminal offences are to be interpreted by the courts. The ORR has determined that the amendments are mechanical and minor in nature, do not have a direct or significant impact on business and do not restrict competition, and therefore a Regulation Impact Statement is not required.

Table 10 - Remove "standards/circumstances specified"

Column 1

Column 2

Item of Schedule 1
of proposed Regulations

Provision of
regulations being amended

351

89P (1)

353

89Q (1)

355

89R (1)

356

89R (2)

11.       Omission of offence or defence provisions where there is an equivalent provision in the Criminal Code

The Regulations omit the offence or defence provision of the regulations identified in Table 11 below, as there is an equivalent general provision in the Criminal Code (see section 10.5 (defence of lawful authority), 11.1 (offence of attempting to commit proscribed conduct) and 137.1 (offence of providing false or misleading information)).

Table 11 - Offence or defence provisions with Criminal Code equivalents

Column 1

Column 2

Item of Schedule 1
of proposed Regulations

Provision of regulations being amended

567

235 (4)

(offence of attempting to commit proscribed conduct)

568

235 (5)

(offence of attempting to commit proscribed conduct)

570

235 (8)

(offence of attempting to commit proscribed conduct)

684

283

(offence of providing false or misleading information)

691

294 (1)

(defence of lawful authority)

12.       Numbering of regulations

The Regulations introduce numbering for, or renumber, the provisions identified in Table 12 below as a consequence of the provision that the offence is of strict liability or of the restructuring of the regulation. The amendment to the subregulation marked with double asterisks (**) is consequential to the amendment to the provision marked with an asterisk (*).

Table 12 - Numbering of regulations

Column 1

Column 2

Item of Schedule 1
of proposed Regulations

Provision of
regulations being amended

52

42U

70

42ZN

82

42ZZA

88

43B

91

46

102

50D

108

51B

152

5.35

153

5.37

168

5.53

178

5.67

181

5.68

183

5.69

185

5.70

188

5.71

190

5.72

191

5.73

201

5.82

225

5.109

263

5.156

270

5.170

282

5.185

283

5.186

295

5.195

297

5.195D

304

5.203

311

79

341

89J

344

89L

347

89N

390

105

392

120

400

135

413

143 and 144

417

151 and 152

418

153

428

158

430

159

447

167

481

179

485

180

487

181

489

182

490

183

499

198

503

203

508

208

511

209

513

210

516

213

518

214

523

216

538

221

541

223

551

228

553

229

574

238

587

246

610

256AA

615

258

626

262AD

629

262AF

631

262AG *

632

262AG (3) **

633

262AH

636

262AJ

676

262AS

685

286

689

291

697

299

13.       Placement or rewording of penalty provisions

The Regulations amend the provisions identified in Table 13 below, to place the applicable penalty provision after each offence provision, rather than at the end of the particular regulation or in the body of an offence provision, or to amend the wording of the penalty provision. This avoids difficulties in determining the offence provisions within the regulation, and achieves drafting consistency. The amendments are beyond the general Government authority in relation to harmonisation of Commonwealth offences with the Criminal Code. However, they are preferable in that it is Commonwealth Criminal Law Policy that criminal offence provisions should be structured to provide certainty and clarity in relation to the scope and effect of each offence, and to give consistency as to how criminal offences are to be interpreted by the courts. The ORR has determined that the amendments are mechanical and minor in nature, do not have a direct or significant impact on business and do not restrict competition, and therefore a Regulation Impact Statement is not required.

Table 13 - Penalty provisions

Column 1

Column 2

Item of Schedule 1
of proposed Regulations

Provision of
regulations being amended

5

13C (1)

7

13D (1)

8

13D (2)

10

13E (1)

12

13F (3)

13

13G (1)

16

13I (1)

18

13R (1)

20

29 (6)

25

30B (3)

31

33B (4)

38

34 (5)

44

38 (3)

46

39 (1)

49

41 (1)

98

50B (3)

99

50B (4)

105

51 (2)

110

52 (2)

111

52 (3)

125

59 (3)

135

5.07 (1)

157

5.40 (1)

164

5.50 (4)

171

5.55 (2)

322

83 (1)

326

83 (2)

328

83 (3)

337

89D (4)

339

89H (1), (2) and (3)

349

89O (1)

362

89V (6) and (7)

363

89X (4)

364

89Y (1)

367

89ZD (4)

379

94 (2)

380

95 (3)

382

99AA (7)

384

99A (5)

421

155 (1)

423

155 (3)

435

163 (1)

444

166 (1)

445

166 (3)

448

167

451

168 (1)

453

169 (1), (2) and (3)

455

169 (4)

457

169 (5)

465

173 (3)

492

195 (1), (2), (3) and (4)

493

196

494

196 (7)

495

197

497

197 (4)

500

198

502

199 and 200

503

203

530

218 (4)

536

220 (2)

544

225 (1)

546

226 (1)

558

231 (2)

561

232 (5)

563

233 (3)

576

241 (2)

578

242 (1)

581

243 (1)

583

244 (1)

585

245 (3)

589

247 (1)

595

250 (4)

604

254 (3)

620

259 (1)

623

260

682

282 (4)

699

301 (2)

700

302 (1)

705

309A (4)

14.       Definition of "engage in conduct"

The Regulations insert a definition of the term "engage in conduct" in the regulation identified in Table 14 below. The amendment is a consequence of the amendments indicated, and marked with a double asterisk (**), in Table 5 above.

Table 14 - Definition of "engage in conduct"

Column 1

Column 2

Item of Schedule 1
of proposed Regulations

Provision of
regulations being amended

1

2 (1)

15.       Remove penalty provision from non-offence provisions

The Regulations remove the penalty provision from the provisions identified in Table 15 below, as those are non-offence provisions.

Table 15 - Non-offence provisions

Column 1

Column 2

Item of Schedule 1
of proposed Regulations

Provision of
regulations being amended

93

47 (2)

560

232 (2)

622

259 (2)

16.       Substitute references to provisions of the Crimes Act 1914 with equivalent Criminal Code provisions

The Regulations remove references to provisions of the Crimes Act 1914 from the regulation identified in Table 16 below, and substitute them with the equivalent Criminal Code provisions. This is because those provisions of the Crimes Act have been repealed by the Law and Justice Legislation Amendment (Application of Criminal Code) Act 2001.

Table 16 - References to provisions of Crimes Act 1914

Column 1

Column 2

Item of Schedule 1
of proposed Regulations

Provision of
regulations being amended

696

298C (5)


[Index] [Related Items] [Search] [Download] [Help]