New South Wales Consolidated Acts

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CIVIL LIABILITY ACT 2002 - SECT 5M

No duty of care for recreational activity where risk warning

5M No duty of care for recreational activity where risk warning

(1) A person (
"the defendant" ) does not owe a duty of care to another person who engages in a recreational activity (
"the plaintiff" ) to take care in respect of a risk of the activity if the risk was the subject of a risk warning to the plaintiff.
(2) If the person who suffers harm is an incapable person, the defendant may rely on a risk warning only if:
(a) the incapable person was under the control of or accompanied by another person (who is not an incapable person and not the defendant) and the risk was the subject of a risk warning to that other person, or
(b) the risk was the subject of a risk warning to a parent of the incapable person (whether or not the incapable person was under the control of or accompanied by the parent).
(3) For the purposes of subsections (1) and (2), a risk warning to a person in relation to a recreational activity is a warning that is given in a manner that is reasonably likely to result in people being warned of the risk before engaging in the recreational activity. The defendant is not required to establish that the person received or understood the warning or was capable of receiving or understanding the warning.
(4) A risk warning can be given orally or in writing (including by means of a sign or otherwise).
(5) A risk warning need not be specific to the particular risk and can be a general warning of risks that include the particular risk concerned (so long as the risk warning warns of the general nature of the particular risk).
(6) A defendant is not entitled to rely on a risk warning unless it is given by or on behalf of the defendant or by or on behalf of the occupier of the place where the recreational activity is engaged in.
(7) A defendant is not entitled to rely on a risk warning if it is established (on the balance of probabilities) that the harm concerned resulted from a contravention of a provision of a written law of the State or Commonwealth that establishes specific practices or procedures for the protection of personal safety.
(8) A defendant is not entitled to rely on a risk warning to a person to the extent that the warning was contradicted by any representation as to risk made by or on behalf of the defendant to the person.
(9) A defendant is not entitled to rely on a risk warning if the plaintiff was required to engage in the recreational activity by the defendant.
(10) The fact that a risk is the subject of a risk warning does not of itself mean:
(a) that the risk is not an obvious or inherent risk of an activity, or
(b) that a person who gives the risk warning owes a duty of care to a person who engages in an activity to take precautions to avoid the risk of harm from the activity.
(11) This section does not limit or otherwise affect the effect of a risk warning in respect of a risk of an activity that is not a recreational activity.
(12) In this section:

"incapable person" means a person who, because of the person's young age or a physical or mental disability, lacks the capacity to understand the risk warning.

"parent" of an incapable person means any person (not being an incapable person) having parental responsibility for the incapable person.



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