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CIVIL AVIATION SAFETY REGULATIONS 1998 - REG 61.010

Definitions for Part 61

                   In this Part:

"aerial application endorsement" means an endorsement mentioned in column 1 of table 61.1120.

"aerial application operation" means a flight that is carried out by an aircraft to apply application material.

"aerial application proficiency check" means an assessment, against the standards mentioned in the Part 61 Manual of Standards, of a pilot's competency to exercise the privileges of an aerial application rating.

"aeronautical experience" : see regulation 61.075.

"aeronautical knowledge examination" , for a flight crew licence, rating or endorsement, means an examination set under regulation 61.215 for the grant of the licence, rating or endorsement.

"aeroplane" : see regulation 61.025.

"approved course of professional development" , for a provision of this Part, means a course of professional development for which the provider holds an approval under regulation 61.040 for the provision.

"approved course of training" , for a provision of this Part, means a course of training:

                     (a)  for which the provider holds an approval under regulation 61.040 for the provision; or

                     (b)  that a Part 141 or 142 operator is authorised to conduct; or

                     (c)  that a person holds an approval under regulation 141.035 or 142.040 to conduct.

"approved flight simulation training device" : a flight simulation training device is an approved flight simulation training device for a purpose if:

                     (a)  a Part 141 operator's operations manual, or a Part 142 operator's exposition, states that the device may be used for the purpose; or

                     (b)  the operator of the device holds an approval under regulation 60.055 or 61.040 to use the device for the purpose; or

                     (c)  the device is:

                              (i)  qualified (however described) by the national aviation authority of a recognised foreign State; and

                             (ii)  approved for the purpose by the national aviation authority.

"approved flight simulator" : a flight simulator is an approved flight simulator for a purpose if:

                     (a)  a Part 141 operator's operations manual, or a Part 142 operator's exposition, states that the simulator may be used for the purpose; or

                     (b)  the operator of the simulator holds an approval under regulation 60.055 to use the simulator for the purpose; or

                     (c)  the simulator is:

                              (i)  qualified (however described) by the national aviation authority of a recognised foreign State; and

                             (ii)  approved for the purpose by the national aviation authority.

"associated" : an aircraft category rating is associated with a pilot licence if:

                     (a)  for an application for the pilot licence--the application includes an application for the rating; or

                     (b)  in any other case--the rating was granted on the basis of the applicant having met the requirements for the grant of the pilot licence with the rating.

Note:          An aircraft category rating has effect only for the pilot licence with which it is associated: see regulation 61.725.

"aviation English language proficiency assessment" means an aviation English language proficiency assessment conducted under regulation 61.255.

"aviation English language proficiency assessor" means the holder of an approval under regulation 61.270 to conduct an aviation English language proficiency assessment.

"azimuth guidance operation" means an instrument approach operation using azimuth bearings for lateral navigation guidance.

"basic instrument flight training" means flight training in the units of competency for instrument flight mentioned in the Part 61 Manual of Standards for the grant of a private pilot licence or commercial pilot licence.

"category" of aircraft: see regulation 61.015.

"category specific" : a rating or endorsement is category specific if the rating or endorsement applies only to an aircraft category that is specified on the rating or endorsement.

"Certificate IV in Training and Assessment" means a Certificate IV in Training and Assessment issued by a registered training organisation under the Australian Qualifications Framework.

Note:          See www.aqf.edu.au/.

"certificate of validation" means a certificate of validation granted under Subpart 61.C.

"circling approach" means an extension of an instrument approach operation that includes a visual circling manoeuvre to position an aircraft for a landing.

"class" of aircraft: see regulation 61.020.

"conduct" , as a verb, means:

                     (a)  in relation to a flight operation--to occupy a flight control seat in an aircraft while the operation takes place; or

                     (b)  in relation to a simulated flight operation--to occupy a flight control seat in a flight simulation training device while the simulated operation takes place; or

                     (c)  in relation to an operation of a tethered helicopter--to occupy a flight control seat in the tethered helicopter while the operation takes place.

"course deviation indicator operation" means an instrument approach operation using a course deviation indicator for lateral navigation guidance.

"cross-country flight" means a flight along a pre-planned route during which the pilot uses geometry, topography or radio navigation aids to determine the aircraft's position and course.

"cross-country flight time" means flight time accrued during a cross-country flight.

"cruise relief type rating" means:

                     (a)  a cruise relief co-pilot type rating; or

                     (b)  a cruise relief flight engineer type rating.

"current" :

                     (a)  for an aviation English language proficiency assessment--see regulation 61.260; and

                     (b)  for a recreational aviation medical practitioner's certificate held by:

                              (i)  a student pilot--see subregulation 61.114(6); and

                             (ii)  a recreational pilot licence holder--see subregulation 61.405(3); and

                     (c)  for a certificate of validation or medical certificate--means a certificate that is in force.

"differences training" , for a variant, means the training mentioned in regulation 61.200 for the variant.

"dual cross-country flight time" means cross-country flight time that is conducted in dual flight.

"dual flight" means flight conducted while receiving training from a pilot instructor occupying a flight control seat in an aircraft that is fitted with fully functional dual controls.

"dual flight check" means an in-flight assessment by a flight instructor of the competency of a student pilot to conduct a solo training flight.

"dual instrument flight time" means instrument flight time that is conducted in dual flight.

"dual instrument ground time" means instrument ground time that is conducted in dual simulated flight.

"dual instrument time" means:

                     (a)  dual instrument flight time; or

                     (b)  dual instrument ground time.

"dual simulated flight" means simulated flight conducted while receiving training from a pilot instructor occupying a flight control seat in a flight simulation training device that is fitted with fully functional dual controls.

"duration" , of a flight, means:

                     (a)  for a flight in an aeroplane or gyroplane--the time from the moment the aircraft begins moving, whether or not under its own power, in preparation for flight until the moment it comes to rest at the end of the flight; or

                     (b)  for a flight in a helicopter or powered-lift aircraft--the time from the moment the aircraft's rotor blades start turning until the moment the rotor blades stop turning after the aircraft comes to rest at the end of the flight; or

                     (c)  for a flight in an airship--the time from the moment the airship is released from its mooring until the moment it is tethered at the end of the flight; or

                     (d)  for a flight in a glider--the time from the moment the glider first begins moving in preparation for flight, whether being towed or not, until the moment it comes to rest at the end of the flight.

"endorsement" means a flight crew endorsement.

"equivalent" , for an overseas flight crew licence, rating or endorsement: an overseas flight crew licence, rating or endorsement (however described) is equivalent to a flight crew licence, rating or endorsement granted under this Part (an Australian authorisation ) if it allows the holder to conduct substantially the same activities as the Australian authorisation.

"examiner" means:

                     (a)  a flight examiner; or

                     (b)  a flight engineer examiner.

"examiner rating" means:

                     (a)  a flight examiner rating; or

                     (b)  a flight engineer examiner rating.

"flight" means flight in:

                     (a)  an aeroplane; or

                     (b)  a helicopter; or

                     (c)  an airship; or

                     (d)  a glider, other than a hang glider, powered hang glider, paraglider or powered paraglider; or

                     (e)  a gyroplane; or

                      (f)  a powered-lift aircraft.

"flight activity endorsement" means an endorsement mentioned in column 1 of table 61.1145.

"flight crew endorsement" means an endorsement granted under this Part on a flight crew licence.

"flight crew licence" means:

                     (a)  a pilot licence; or

                     (b)  a flight engineer licence; or

                     (c)  a glider pilot licence.

"flight crew rating" means a rating granted under this Part on a flight crew licence.

"flight engineer examiner" means the holder of a flight engineer examiner rating.

"flight engineer examiner endorsement" means an endorsement mentioned in column 1 of table 61.1495.

"flight engineer flight test endorsement" means an endorsement mentioned in column 1 of Part 1 of table 61.1495.

"flight engineer instructor" means the holder of a flight engineer instructor rating.

"flight engineer training endorsement" means an endorsement mentioned in column 1 of table 61.1430.

"flight examiner" means the holder of a flight examiner rating.

"flight examiner endorsement" means an endorsement mentioned in column 1 of table 61.1310.

"flight instructor" means the holder of a flight instructor rating.

"flight review" means an assessment of the competency of a flight crew member to perform:

                     (a)  for the holder of a pilot licence or flight engineer licence--an activity authorised by a flight crew rating that the crew member holds; or

                     (b)  for the holder of a glider pilot licence--an activity authorised by the licence.

"flight simulation training device" means:

                     (a)  a qualified flight simulator; or

                     (b)  a qualified flight training device; or

                     (c)  a synthetic trainer that is approved under Civil Aviation Order 45.0; or

                     (d)  a device that meets the qualification standards prescribed by a legislative instrument under regulation 61.045; or

                     (e)  a device that is qualified (however described) by the national aviation authority of a recognised foreign State.

"flight test" , for a flight crew licence, rating or endorsement, means a test conducted under regulation 61.245 for the licence, rating or endorsement.

"flight test endorsement" means an endorsement mentioned in column 1 of Part 1 of table 61.1310.

"flight time" as:

                     (a)  a pilot: see regulation 61.080; and

                     (b)  a co-pilot: see regulation 61.085; and

                     (c)  a pilot in command: see regulation 61.090; and

                     (d)  a pilot in command under supervision: see regulation 61.095; and

                     (e)  a flight engineer: see regulation 61.100.

"flight training" , for a flight crew licence, rating or endorsement, means the training mentioned in regulation 61.195 for the licence, rating or endorsement.

"initial flight training" means dual flight conducted for training in the units of competency mentioned in the Part 61 Manual of Standards for the grant of a recreational pilot licence.

"instructor" means:

                     (a)  a flight instructor; or

                     (b)  a simulator instructor; or

                     (c)  a flight engineer instructor.

"instructor proficiency check" means an assessment, against the standards mentioned in the Part 61 Manual of Standards, of an instructor's competency to conduct flight training.

"instructor rating" means:

                     (a)  a flight instructor rating; or

                     (b)  a simulator instructor rating; or

                     (c)  a flight engineer instructor rating.

"instrument endorsement" means an endorsement mentioned in column 1 of table 61.890.

"instrument flight time" : see regulation 61.105.

"instrument ground time" : see regulation 61.110.

"instrument proficiency check" means an assessment, against the standards mentioned in the Part 61 Manual of Standards, of a pilot's competency to pilot an aircraft under the IFR.

"instrument time" means:

                     (a)  instrument flight time; or

                     (b)  instrument ground time.

"knowledge deficiency report" means a report prepared, and given to a person, under regulation 61.230 .

"licence" means a flight crew licence.

"licence document" : see regulation 61.175.

"low-level endorsement" means an endorsement mentioned in column 1 of table 61.1075.

"low-level operation" means an operation below 500 ft AGL, other than the following:

                     (a)  climbing from take-off;

                     (b)  descending for the purpose of landing;

                     (c)  an aerial application operation.

"maximum certificated passenger seating capacity" , for an aircraft, means the maximum passenger seating capacity stated in the aircraft's type certificate, foreign type certificate, supplemental type certificate or foreign supplemental type certificate.

"maximum certificated take-off weight" , for an aircraft, means the maximum take-off weight stated in the aircraft's type certificate, foreign type certificate, supplemental type certificate or foreign supplemental type certificate.

"medical exemption" means:

                     (a)  for the conduct of a solo flight by a student pilot--an approval under regulation 61.040 to conduct the solo flight without holding a current medical certificate or recreational aviation medical practitioner's certificate; and

                     (b)  for the exercise of the privileges of a flight crew licence or rating--an approval under regulation 61.040 to exercise the privileges of the licence or rating without holding a current medical certificate or recreational aviation medical practitioner's certificate.

"medical practitioner" means a person entitled to practise as a medical practitioner under a law of a State or Territory.

"multi-crew" , in relation to an aircraft, means that the aircraft is certificated for operation by a crew of at least 2 pilots.

"multi-crew operation" means an operation that requires at least 2 pilots in:

                     (a)  a multi-crew aircraft; or

                     (b)  an aircraft that is equipped, and required by these Regulations, to be operated by a crew of at least 2 pilots.

"multi-crew pilot licence training course" means a course of training for the grant of a multi-crew pilot licence conducted by a Part 142 operator.

"multi-crew type rating" means a pilot type rating authorising its holder to pilot an aircraft of the type covered by the rating in a multi-crew operation.

"multi-engine aeroplane" means an aeroplane that has 2 or more engines, other than:

                     (a)  a multi-engine centre-line thrust aeroplane; or

                     (b)  an aeroplane that is prescribed by a legislative instrument under regulation 61.050 as an aeroplane that is included in the single-engine aeroplane class.

"multi-engine centre-line thrust aeroplane" means an aeroplane with 2 or more engines that:

                     (a)  has the thrust line along the longitudinal axis of the aeroplane; and

                     (b)  has no asymmetric handling effect about the normal axis in the event of an engine failure.

"night VFR endorsement" means an endorsement mentioned in column 1 of table 61.980.

"night vision goggles" means a self-contained binocular night vision enhancement device that:

                     (a)  is helmet-mounted or otherwise worn by a person; and

                     (b)  can detect and amplify light in both the visual and near infra-red bands of the electromagnetic spectrum.

"night vision imaging system endorsement" means an endorsement mentioned in column 1 of table 61.1025.

"night vision imaging system proficiency check" means an assessment, against the standards mentioned in the Part 61 Manual of Standards, of a pilot's competency to pilot a helicopter using a night vision imaging system.

"operational endorsement" means any of the following endorsements:

                     (a)  an aerial application endorsement;

                     (b)  a flight activity endorsement;

                     (c)  a flight examiner endorsement;

                     (d)  an instrument endorsement;

                     (e)  a low-level endorsement;

                      (f)  a night VFR endorsement;

                     (g)  a night vision imaging system endorsement;

                     (h)  a private instrument endorsement;

                      (i)  a training endorsement;

                      (j)  a flight engineer examiner endorsement;

                     (k)  a flight engineer training endorsement.

"operational rating" means any of the following ratings:

                     (a)  an aerial application rating;

                     (b)  an examiner rating;

                     (c)  an instructor rating;

                     (d)  an instrument rating;

                     (e)  a low-level rating;

                      (f)  a night VFR rating;

                     (g)  a night vision imaging system rating;

                     (h)  a private instrument rating.

"operator proficiency check" means an assessment conducted by an operator in accordance with its training and checking responsibilities under these Regulations of whether a person has the aeronautical skills and knowledge required by the operator.

"overseas endorsement" means an authorisation (however described) granted by the national aviation authority of a Contracting State, in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention, that is equivalent to a flight crew endorsement.

"overseas flight crew licence" means an authorisation (however described) granted by the national aviation authority of a Contracting State, in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention, that is equivalent to a flight crew licence.

"overseas medical certificate" means a medical certificate (however described) granted by the national aviation authority of a Contracting State, in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention, that is equivalent to a medical certificate.

"overseas rating" means an authorisation (however described) granted by the national aviation authority of a Contracting State, in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention, that is equivalent to a flight crew rating.

"pilot" , used as a noun, means a person authorised under this Part to manipulate the flight controls of an aircraft during flight.

"pilot" , used as a verb, means:

                     (a)  to manipulate the flight controls of an aircraft during flight; or

                     (b)  to occupy a flight control seat in an aircraft during flight.

"pilot in command under supervision" means a pilot, other than a student pilot, who performs the duties and functions of the pilot in command of an aircraft under the supervision of a pilot who is authorised by the operator of the aircraft to conduct the supervision.

"pilot instructor" means:

                     (a)  a flight instructor; or

                     (b)  a simulator instructor.

"pilot licence" means any of the following licences:

                     (a)  an air transport pilot licence;

                     (b)  a commercial pilot licence;

                     (c)  a multi-crew pilot licence;

                     (d)  a private pilot licence;

                     (e)  a recreational pilot licence.

"private instrument endorsement" means an endorsement mentioned in column 1 of table 61.935.

"privilege" , in relation to a flight crew licence, rating or endorsement, means an activity that the holder of the licence, rating or endorsement is authorised, under this Part, to conduct.

"published lowest safe altitude" has the meaning given by subregulation 178(7) of CAR.

"rating" means a flight crew rating.

"recent photograph" , at a particular time, means a photograph taken within 6 months before that time.

"recognised aeroplane" means an aeroplane:

                     (a)  that is on the register of aircraft kept by a Contracting State; or

                     (b)  that is a State aircraft.

"recognised foreign State" means any of the following:

                     (a)  Canada;

                     (b)  Hong Kong;

                     (c)  New Zealand;

                     (d)  United States of America;

                     (e)  the following EASA member States:

                              (i)  Belgium;

                             (ii)  Czech Republic;

                            (iii)  Denmark;

                            (iv)  Finland;

                             (v)  France;

                            (vi)  Germany;

                           (vii)  Ireland;

                          (viii)  Italy;

                            (ix)  Netherlands;

                             (x)  Norway;

                            (xi)  Portugal;

                           (xii)  Spain;

                          (xiii)  Sweden;

                          (xiv)  Switzerland;

                           (xv)  United Kingdom;

                      (f)  any other foreign country prescribed by a legislative instrument under regulation 61.047.

"recognised gyroplane" means a gyroplane:

                     (a)  that is on the register of aircraft kept by a Contracting State; or

                     (b)  that is a State aircraft.

"recognised helicopter" means a helicopter:

                     (a)  that is on the register of aircraft kept by a Contracting State; or

                     (b)  that is a State aircraft.

"recognised powered-lift aircraft" means a powered-lift aircraft:

                     (a)  that is on the register of aircraft kept by a Contracting State; or

                     (b)  that is a State aircraft.

"recreational aircraft" means a single-engine aircraft that:

                     (a)  is certificated for single-pilot operation; and

                     (b)  has a maximum certificated take-off weight of less than 1 500 kg; and

                     (c)  is not rocket-powered or turbine-powered.

"recreational aviation administration organisation" means:

                     (a)  Recreational Aviation Australia Limited; or

                     (b)  Australian Sport Rotorcraft Association Incorporated; or

                     (c)  The Gliding Federation of Australia Incorporated; or

                     (d)  an ASAO.

"recreational aviation medical practitioner's certificate" means a certificate from a medical practitioner to the effect that the holder meets the modified Austroads medical standards.

"recreational pilot licence endorsement" means an endorsement mentioned in regulation 61.485.

"simulated flight engineer time" means time spent in a flight simulation training device during which a flight engineer is performing the duties of a flight engineer.

"simulated flight time" means time spent in a flight simulation training device during which a pilot is performing the duties of a pilot.

"simulated IMC" means flight in an aircraft or flight simulation training device during which the pilot is prevented from viewing the external horizon.

"simulator instructor" means the holder of a simulator instructor rating.

"single-pilot operation" means an operation in an aircraft, other than a multi-crew operation.

"single-pilot type rating" means a pilot type rating authorising its holder to pilot an aircraft of the type covered by the rating in a single-pilot operation.

"solo" , in relation to a flight of an aircraft, means a flight in which the pilot is the sole occupant of the aircraft.

"standard instrument departure" means a departure under the IFR in accordance with an instrument departure procedure.

"successfully participating" : a person is successfully participating in an operator's training and checking system for an operation if:

                     (a)  the person is employed by the operator; and

                     (b)  the operator's training and checking system covers the operation; and

                     (c)  the person has met the requirements under the system for entry into the system; and

                     (d)  the person is permitted under the system to be assigned by the operator for duty for the operation.

"tethered flight time" means the duration of a flight in a tethered helicopter.

"tethered helicopter" means a helicopter tethered to a base that allows hovering but not free flight.

"training endorsement" means an endorsement mentioned in column 1 of table 61.1235.

"training provider" , for a person undertaking flight training, means:

                     (a)  the Part 141 or 142 operator conducting the training; or

                     (b)  the person conducting the training who holds an approval under regulation 141.035 or 142.040 to conduct the training.

"type rating" means:

                     (a)  a pilot type rating; or

                     (b)  a flight engineer type rating; or

                     (c)  a cruise relief type rating.

"type specific" : a rating or endorsement is type specific if the rating or endorsement applies only to an aircraft type that is specified on the rating or endorsement.

"variant , in relation to an aircraft model (the first model" ), means another aircraft model that CASA has prescribed by a legislative instrument under regulation 61.055 as a variant of the first model.



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