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CRIMES (SENTENCING PROCEDURE) ACT 1999 - SECT 21A

Aggravating, mitigating and other factors in sentencing

21A Aggravating, mitigating and other factors in sentencing

(1) General In determining the appropriate sentence for an offence, the court is to take into account the following matters:
(a) the aggravating factors referred to in subsection (2) that are relevant and known to the court,
(b) the mitigating factors referred to in subsection (3) that are relevant and known to the court,
(c) any other objective or subjective factor that affects the relative seriousness of the offence.
The matters referred to in this subsection are in addition to any other matters that are required or permitted to be taken into account by the court under any Act or rule of law.
(2) Aggravating factors The aggravating factors to be taken into account in determining the appropriate sentence for an offence are as follows:
(a) the victim was a police officer, emergency services worker, correctional officer, judicial officer, council law enforcement officer, health worker, teacher, community worker, or other public official, exercising public or community functions and the offence arose because of the victim's occupation or voluntary work,
(b) the offence involved the actual or threatened use of violence,
(c) the offence involved the actual or threatened use of a weapon,
(ca) the offence involved the actual or threatened use of explosives or a chemical or biological agent,
(cb) the offence involved the offender causing the victim to take, inhale or be affected by a narcotic drug, alcohol or any other intoxicating substance,
(d) the offender has a record of previous convictions (particularly if the offender is being sentenced for a serious personal violence offence and has a record of previous convictions for serious personal violence offences),
(e) the offence was committed in company,
(ea) the offence was committed in the presence of a child under 18 years of age,
(eb) the offence was committed in the home of the victim or any other person,
(f) the offence involved gratuitous cruelty,
(g) the injury, emotional harm, loss or damage caused by the offence was substantial,
(h) the offence was motivated by hatred for or prejudice against a group of people to which the offender believed the victim belonged (such as people of a particular religion, racial or ethnic origin, language, sexual orientation or age, or having a particular disability),
(i) the offence was committed without regard for public safety,
(ia) the actions of the offender were a risk to national security (within the meaning of the National Security Information (Criminal and Civil Proceedings) Act 2004 of the Commonwealth),
(ib) the offence involved a grave risk of death to another person or persons,
(j) the offence was committed while the offender was on conditional liberty in relation to an offence or alleged offence,
(k) the offender abused a position of trust or authority in relation to the victim,
(l) the victim was vulnerable, for example, because the victim was very young or very old or had a disability, because of the geographical isolation of the victim or because of the victim's occupation (such as a person working at a hospital (other than a health worker), taxi driver, bus driver or other public transport worker, bank teller or service station attendant),
(m) the offence involved multiple victims or a series of criminal acts,
(n) the offence was part of a planned or organised criminal activity,
(o) the offence was committed for financial gain,
(p) without limiting paragraph (ea), the offence was a prescribed traffic offence and was committed while a child under 16 years of age was a passenger in the offender's vehicle.
The court is not to have additional regard to any such aggravating factor in sentencing if it is an element of the offence.
(3) Mitigating factors The mitigating factors to be taken into account in determining the appropriate sentence for an offence are as follows:
(a) the injury, emotional harm, loss or damage caused by the offence was not substantial,
(b) the offence was not part of a planned or organised criminal activity,
(c) the offender was provoked by the victim,
(d) the offender was acting under duress,
(e) the offender does not have any record (or any significant record) of previous convictions,
(f) the offender was a person of good character,
(g) the offender is unlikely to re-offend,
(h) the offender has good prospects of rehabilitation, whether by reason of the offender's age or otherwise,
(i) the remorse shown by the offender for the offence, but only if:
(i) the offender has provided evidence that he or she has accepted responsibility for his or her actions, and
(ii) the offender has acknowledged any injury, loss or damage caused by his or her actions or made reparation for such injury, loss or damage (or both),
(j) the offender was not fully aware of the consequences of his or her actions because of the offender's age or any disability,
(k) a plea of guilty by the offender (as provided by section 22 or Division 1A),
(l) the degree of pre-trial disclosure by the defence (as provided by section 22A),
(m) assistance by the offender to law enforcement authorities (as provided by section 23),
(n) an offer to plead guilty to a different offence where the offer is not accepted, the offender did not plead guilty to the offence and the offender is subsequently found guilty of that offence or a reasonably equivalent offence (this circumstance, among others, is provided for by section 25E (1)).
(4) The court is not to have regard to any such aggravating or mitigating factor in sentencing if it would be contrary to any Act or rule of law to do so.
(5) The fact that any such aggravating or mitigating factor is relevant and known to the court does not require the court to increase or reduce the sentence for the offence.
(5A) Special rules for child sexual offences In determining the appropriate sentence for a child sexual offence, the good character or lack of previous convictions of an offender is not to be taken into account as a mitigating factor if the court is satisfied that the factor concerned was of assistance to the offender in the commission of the offence.
(5AA) Special rule for self-induced intoxication In determining the appropriate sentence for an offence, the self-induced intoxication of the offender at the time the offence was committed is not to be taken into account as a mitigating factor.
(5B) Subsections (5A) and (5AA) have effect despite any Act or rule of law to the contrary.
(5C) For the purpose of subsection (2) (p), an offence under any of the following provisions is taken to have been committed while a child under 16 years of age was a passenger in the offender's vehicle if the offence was part of a series of events that involved the driving of the vehicle while the child was a passenger in the vehicle:
(a) section 13 (2), 15 (4), 18B (2), 18D (2), 22 (2), 24D (1) or 29 (2) of the former Road Transport (Safety and Traffic Management) Act 1999 ,
(b) clause 16 (1) (a), (b) or (c), 17 (1) or 18 (1) of Schedule 3 to the Road Transport Act 2013 .
(6) In this section:

"child sexual offence" means:
(a) an offence against section 61I, 61J, 61JA, 61K, 61KC, 61KD, 61KE, 61KF or 66F of the Crimes Act 1900 where the person against whom the offence was committed was then under the age of 16 years, or
(b) an offence against section 66A, 66B, 66C, 66D, 66DA, 66DB, 66DC, 66DD, 66DE, 66DF, 66EA, 66EB, 66EC, 91D, 91E, 91F, 91G or 91H of the Crimes Act 1900 , or
(c) an offence against section 80D or 80E of the Crimes Act 1900 where the person against whom the offence was committed was then under the age of 16 years, or
(d) an offence against section 91J, 91K or 91L of the Crimes Act 1900 where the person who was being observed or filmed as referred to in those sections was then under the age of 16 years, or
(d1) an offence against a provision of the Crimes Act 1900 set out in Column 1 of Schedule 1A to that Act where the person against whom the offence was committed was then under the age of 16 years, or
(e) an offence of attempting, or of conspiracy or incitement, to commit an offence referred to in any of the above paragraphs, or
(f) an offence under a previous enactment that is substantially similar to an offence referred to in any of the above paragraphs.

"prescribed traffic offence" means an offence under any of the following provisions:
(a) sections 9, 11B (1) and (3), 12 (1), 13 (2), 15 (4), 18B (2), 18D (2), 22 (2), 24D (1) and 29 (2) of the former Road Transport (Safety and Traffic Management) Act 1999 ,
(a1) sections 110, 111 (1) and (3) and 112 (1) of the Road Transport Act 2013 and clauses 16 (1) (a), (b) or (c), 17 (1) and 18 (1) of Schedule 3 to that Act,
(b) sections 51B (1) and 52A (1) (a) and (3) (a) of the Crimes Act 1900 ,
(c) section 52A (2) and (4) of the Crimes Act 1900 in the circumstances of aggravation referred to in section 52A (7) (a), (c) or (d) of that Act.

"self-induced intoxication" has the same meaning it has in Part 11A of the Crimes Act 1900 .

"serious personal violence offence" means a personal violence offence (within the meaning of the Crimes (Domestic and Personal Violence) Act 2007 ) that is punishable by imprisonment for life or for a term of 5 years or more.



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