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WATER ACT 2007 - SECT 4

Definitions

  (1)   In this Act:

"ACCC" means the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission.

"affects water resource plan accreditations" , in relation to an amendment of the Basin Plan, has the meaning given by subsection   48(8).

"agency" of the Commonwealth means:

  (a)   a Minister of the Crown for the Commonwealth; or

  (b)   a Department of State for the Commonwealth; or

  (c)   a body (whether incorporated or not) established or appointed for a public purpose by or under a law of the Commonwealth; or

  (d)   a body established, or appointed, by the Governor - General; or

  (e)   a person holding or performing the duties of:

  (i)   an office established by or under; or

  (ii)   an appointment made under;

    a law of the Commonwealth (other than the office of head of a Department of State for the Commonwealth (however described)); or

  (f)   a person holding or performing the duties of an appointment that is made by the Governor - General (otherwise than under a law of the Commonwealth); or

  (g)   a company in which the Commonwealth, or a body corporate referred to in paragraph   (c) or (d), has a controlling interest.

"agency" of a State means:

  (a)   a Minister of the Crown for the State; or

  (b)   a Department of State for the State; or

  (c)   a body (whether incorporated or not) established or appointed for a public purpose by or under a law of the State (including a local government body); or

  (d)   a body established or appointed by:

  (i)   a Governor of the State; or

  (ii)   a Minister of the Crown for the State; or

  (iii)   if the State is the Australian Capital Territory--the Australian Capital Territory Executive; or

  (e)   a person holding or performing the duties of:

  (i)   an office established by or under; or

  (ii)   an appointment made under;

    a law of the State (other than the office of head of a Department of State for the State (however described)); or

  (f)   a person holding or performing the duties of an appointment that is made by:

  (i)   a Governor of the State; or

  (ii)   a Minister of the Crown for the State; or

  (iii)   if the State is the Australian Capital Territory--the Australian Capital Territory Executive;

    (otherwise than under a law of the State); or

  (g)   a company in which the State, or a body corporate referred to in paragraph   (c) or (d), has a controlling interest.

"Agreement" has the meaning given by section   18A.

"appropriate enforcement agency" has the meaning given by section   137.

"assist" , in relation to an Authority delegate, means:

  (a)   to perform functions in connection with the Authority delegate's performance or exercise of a function or power delegated under section   199; or

  (b)   to perform services for the Authority delegate in connection with the Authority delegate's performance or exercise of a function or power delegated under section   199.

"Australia" , when used in a geographical sense, includes the external Territories.

"authorised compliance officer" means an individual whose appointment by the Inspector - General under section   222G is in force.

"authorised officer" means an individual whose appointment by the Authority under section   217 is in force.

"Authority" has the meaning given by section   18A.

"Authority Chair" means the Chair of the Authority.

"Authority delegate" means a person to whom a function or power is delegated under section   199.

"Authority member" means a member of the Authority, and includes the Chief Executive and the Authority Chair.

"Authority staff" means the staff described in section   206.

"Basin Community Committee" means the committee established under section   202.

"Basin Officials Committee" has the meaning given by section   18A.

"Basin Plan" means the Basin Plan adopted by the Minister under section   44 (as amended from time to time).

"Basin reference limit" has the meaning given by subsection   23A(5).

"Basin State" means the following:

  (a)   New South Wales;

  (b)   Victoria;

  (c)   Queensland;

  (d)   South Australia;

  (e)   the Australian Capital Territory.

"Basin water market trading objectives and principles" means the objectives and principles that are set out in Schedule   3.

"Basin water resources" means all water resources within, or beneath, the Murray - Darling Basin, but does not include:

  (a)   water resources within, or beneath, the Murray - Darling Basin that are prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this paragraph; or

  (b)   ground water that forms part of the Great Artesian Basin.

"biodiversity" means the variability among living organisms from all sources (including terrestrial, marine and aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part) and includes:

  (a)   diversity within species and between species; and

  (b)   diversity of ecosystems.

"Biodiversity Convention" means the Convention on Biological Diversity done at Rio de Janeiro on 5   June 1992.

Note:   The text of the Convention is set out in Australian Treaty Series 1993 No.   32. In 2007, the text of a Convention in the Australian Treaty Series was accessible through the Australian Treaties Library on the AustLII website (www.austlii.edu.au).

"Bonn Convention" means the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals done at Bonn on 23   June 1979.

Note:   The text of the Convention is set out in Australian Treaty Series 1991 No.   32. In 2007, the text of a Convention in the Australian Treaty Series was accessible through the Australian Treaties Library on the AustLII website (www.austlii.edu.au).

"Border Rivers water sharing arrangements" has the meaning given by subsection   86F(3).

"bulk water charge" means a charge payable for either or both the storage of water for, or the delivery of water to, any of the following:

  (a)   infrastructure operators;

  (b)   other operators of reticulated water systems;

  (c)   other persons prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this paragraph.

"Bureau" means the Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology established under section   5 of the Meteorology Act 1955 .

"CAMBA" means the Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the People's Republic of China for the Protection of Migratory Birds and their Environment done at Canberra on 20   October 1986.

Note:   The text of the Agreement is set out in Australian Treaty Series 1988 No.   22. In 2007, the text of an Agreement in the Australian Treaty Series was accessible through the Australian Treaties Library on the AustLII website (www.austlii.edu.au).

"Chief Executive" means the Chief Executive of the Authority.

"civil penalty provision" has the meaning given by section   146.

"Climate Change Convention" means the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change done at New York on 9   May 1992.

Note:   The text of the Convention is set out in Australian Treaty Series 1994 No.   2. In 2007, the text of a Convention in the Australian Treaty Series was accessible through the Australian Treaties Library on the AustLII website (www.austlii.edu.au).

"Commissioner" has the meaning given by subsection   239J(3).

"Commonwealth Environmental Water Holder" means the Commonwealth Environmental Water Holder established under section   104.

"Commonwealth environmental water holdings" has the meaning given by section   108.

"Commonwealth water legislation" has the meaning given by section   250A.

"constitutional corporation" means a corporation to which paragraph   51(xx) of the Constitution applies.

"consumptive use" means the use of water for private benefit consumptive purposes including irrigation, industry, urban and stock and domestic use.

"contract" includes a deed.

"conveyance water" has the meaning given by subsection   86A(4).

"critical human water needs" has the meaning given by subsection   86A(2).

"declared Ramsar wetlands" has the meaning given by section   17 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 .

"Desertification Convention" means the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa done at Paris on 17   June 1994.

Note:   The text of the Convention is set out in Australian Treaty Series 2000 No.   18. In 2007, the text of a Convention in the Australian Treaty Series was accessible through the Australian Treaties Library on the AustLII website (www.austlii.edu.au).

"designated compliance provision" means any of the following provisions:

  (a)   a provision of Part   2 or regulations made for the purposes of that Part;

  (b)   section   166;

  (c)   section   222C;

  (d)   section   222D;

  (e)   section   237A;

  (f)   section   238.

"enforcement body" has the meaning given by the Privacy Act 1988 .

"enforcement related activity" has the meaning given by the Privacy Act 1988 .

"environmental assets" includes:

  (a)   water - dependent ecosystems; and

  (b)   ecosystem services; and

  (c)   sites with ecological significance.

"environmentally sustainable level of take" for a water resource means the level at which water can be taken from that water resource which, if exceeded, would compromise:

  (a)   key environmental assets of the water resource; or

  (b)   key ecosystem functions of the water resource; or

  (c)   the productive base of the water resource; or

  (d)   key environmental outcomes for the water resource.

"environmental outcomes" includes:

  (a)   ecosystem function; and

  (b)   biodiversity; and

  (c)   water quality; and

  (d)   water resource health.

Note 1:   Paragraph   (a) would cover, for example, maintaining ecosystem function by the periodic flooding of floodplain wetlands.

Note 2:   Paragraph   (d) would cover, for example, mitigating pollution and limiting noxious algal blooms.

"environmental water" means:

  (a)   held environmental water; or

  (b)   planned environmental water.

"Environmental Water Holdings Special Account" means the account established by section   111.

"environmental watering" means the delivery or use of environmental water to achieve environmental outcomes.

"environmental watering schedule" means an agreement:

  (a)   that is an agreement to coordinate the use of environmental water to maximise the benefits of environmental watering across the Murray - Darling Basin, a specified part of the Murray - Darling Basin or a specified area outside the Murray - Darling Basin; and

  (b)   to which some or all of the following are parties:

  (i)   holders of held environmental water (including the Commonwealth);

  (ii)   owners of environmental assets;

  (iii)   managers of planned environmental water; and

  (c)   if the agreement relates to held environmental water in the Murray - Darling Basin--to which the Authority is a party.

"evidential burden" , in relation to a matter, means the burden of adducing or pointing to evidence that suggests a reasonable possibility that the matter exists or does not exist.

"evidential material" means any of the following:

  (a)   a thing with respect to which a designated compliance provision has been contravened or is suspected, on reasonable grounds, to have been contravened;

  (b)   a thing that there are reasonable grounds for suspecting will afford evidence as to the contravention of a designated compliance provision;

  (c)   a thing that there are reasonable grounds for suspecting is intended to be used for the purpose of contravening a designated compliance provision.

"executive officer" of a body corporate means a person (by whatever name called and whether or not a director of the body) who is concerned in, or takes part   in, the management of the body.

"field relevant to the Authority's functions" has a meaning affected by subsection   178(3).

"First Ministers' Council" means a body (however described) that consists only of, or that includes, the following:

  (a)   the Prime Minister;

  (b)   the Premiers of each State;

  (c)   the Chief Ministers of the Australian Capital Territory and Northern Territory.

"former MDB Agreement" has the meaning given by section   239A.

"former Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council" has the meaning given by section   239A.

"ground water" means:

  (a)   water occurring naturally below ground level (whether in an aquifer or otherwise); or

  (b)   water occurring at a place below ground that has been pumped, diverted or released to that place for the purpose of being stored there;

but does not include water held in underground tanks, pipes or other works.

"held environmental water" means water available under:

  (a)   a water access right; or

  (b)   a water delivery right; or

  (c)   an irrigation right;

for the purposes of achieving environmental outcomes (including water that is specified in a water access right to be for environmental use).

"Indigenous person" means a person who is:

  (a)   a member of the Aboriginal race of Australia; or

  (b)   a descendant of an Indigenous inhabitant of the Torres Strait Islands.

"infrastructure operator" has the meaning given by subsection   7(2).

"infringement notice" means an infringement notice given under section   156.

"Inspector-General" means the Inspector - General of Water Compliance referred to in section   215B.

"interception activity" means the interception of surface water or ground water that would otherwise flow, directly or indirectly, into a watercourse, lake, wetland, aquifer, dam or reservoir that is a Basin water resource.

"interest" , in relation to land, means:

  (a)   any legal or equitable estate or interest in the land; or

  (b)   a restriction on the use of the land, whether or not annexed to other land; or

  (c)   any other right (including a right under an option and a right of redemption), charge, power or privilege over, or in connection with, the land or an interest in the land.

"interim water resource plan" has the meaning given by section   242.

"international agreement" means an agreement whose parties are:

  (a)   Australia and a foreign country; or

  (b)   Australia and 2 or more foreign countries.

"investigation warrant" means:

  (a)   a warrant issued by a magistrate under section   226; or

  (b)   a warrant signed by a magistrate under section   227.

"irrigation infrastructure operator" has the meaning given by subsection   7(4).

"irrigation network" of an irrigation infrastructure operator has the meaning given by subsection   7(4).

"irrigation right" means a right that:

  (a)   a person has against an irrigation infrastructure operator to receive water; and

  (b)   is not a water access right or a water delivery right.

"JAMBA" means the Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of Japan for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Birds in Danger of Extinction and their Environment done at Tokyo on 6   February 1981.

Note:   The text of the Agreement is set out in Australian Treaty Series 1981 No.   6. In 2007, the text of an Agreement in the Australian Treaty Series was accessible through the Australian Treaties Library on the AustLII website (www.austlii.edu.au).

"lake" :

  (a)   means a natural lake, pond or lagoon (whether modified or not); and

  (b)   includes a part of such a lake, pond or lagoon.

"law of a referring State" means a law of, or in force in, a referring State but does not include a law of the Commonwealth in force in the referring State.

"law of a State" means a law of, or in force in, a State but does not include a law of the Commonwealth in force in the State.

"Living Murray Initiative" has the meaning given by subsection   18H(2).

"Living Murray Initiative assets" has the meaning given by subsection   239E(2).

"Lock 1" means Weir and Lock No 1 Blanchetown referred to in Schedule A to the Agreement.

"long-term annual diversion limit" has the meaning given by item   7 of the table in subsection   22(1).

"long-term average sustainable diversion limit" has the meaning given by item   6 of the table in subsection   22(1).

"Lower Lakes" means Lake Albert and Lake Alexandrina in South Australia.

"maintenance" includes the execution of all work of any description which is necessary to keep an existing work in the state of utility in which it was upon its original completion or upon the completion of any improvement or replacement of the work. However, it does not include:

  (a)   the execution of any improvement to the design or function of that work; or

  (b)   the replacement of the whole of that work; or

  (c)   work to remedy the extraordinary failure of all or part of that work.

"measures" includes strategies, plans and programs.

"member of the governing body of a relevant interest group" has the meaning given by subsection   178(4).

"modifications" includes additions, omissions and substitutions.

"monitoring warrant" means a warrant issued by a magistrate under section   225.

"Murray-Darling Basin" has the meaning given by section   18A.

"Murray-Darling Basin Commission" has the meaning given by section   239A.

"Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council" has the meaning given by section   18A.

"Murray-Darling Basin Special Account" means the fund mentioned in section   209.

"Murray Mouth Barrages" means the Murray Mouth Barrages referred to in Schedule A to the Agreement.

"National Water Commission" means the National Water Commission that was established by section   6 of the National Water Commission Act 2004 .

Note:   The National Water Commission was abolished by the National Water Commission (Abolition) Act 2015 .

"National Water Information Standards" means the standards issued under section   130.

"National Water Initiative" means the Intergovernmental Agreement on a National Water Initiative between the Commonwealth of Australia and the Governments of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory (as amended from time to time).

"Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council" means the Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council that was established by Council of Australian Governments in June 2001.

"non-Basin water access entitlement" has the meaning given by subsection   100C(5).

"notifiable instrument" has the same meaning as in the Legislation Act 2003 .

"operating authority" means:

  (a)   an agency of a Basin State that has the function of managing a river flow control work or a salinity work (whether or not the function is carried out by another person under a licence, contract or other arrangement with the agency); or

  (b)   a person who has the function of managing a river flow control work or a salinity work (whether or not the function is carried out by another person under a licence, contract or other arrangement with the person).

"overallocation" : there is an overallocation for a water resource plan area if, with full development of water access rights in relation to the water resources of the area, the total volume of water able to be extracted by the holders of water access rights at a given time exceeds the environmentally sustainable level of take for those water resources.

"overuse" : there is an overuse for a water resource plan area if the total volume of water actually taken for consumptive use from the water resources of the area at a given time exceeds the environmentally sustainable level of take for those water resources.

Note:   An overuse may arise for a water resource plan area if the area is overallocated, or if the planned allocation for the area is exceeded due to inadequate monitoring or accounting.

"paid work" means work for financial gain or reward (whether as an employee, a self - employed person or otherwise).

"penalty unit" has the meaning given by section   4AA of the Crimes Act 1914 .

"planned environmental water" has the meaning given by section   6.

"premises" includes the following:

  (a)   a building;

  (b)   a place (including an area of land);

  (c)   a vehicle;

  (d)   a vessel;

  (e)   an aircraft;

  (f)   a water resource;

  (g)   any part of premises (including premises referred to in paragraphs   (a) to (f)).

"President" has the meaning given by subsection   239J(2).

"principles of ecologically sustainable development" has the meaning given by subsection   (2).

"Productivity Minister" means the Minister administering the Productivity Commission Act 1998 .

" proposed Basin limit" has the meaning given by subsection   23A(5).

"proposed plan area limit" has the meaning given by subsection   23A(5).

"Ramsar Convention" means the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat done at Ramsar, Iran, on 2   February 1971.

Note:   The text of the Convention is set out in Australian Treaty Series 1975 No.   48. In 2007, the text of a Convention in the Australian Treaty Series was accessible through the Australian Treaties Library on the AustLII website (www.austlii.edu.au).

"reference time" has the meaning given by subsection   23A(5).

"referring State" has the meaning given by section   18B.

"regulated water charges" has the meaning given by section   91.

"relevant chief executive" , in Division   5 of Part   8, has the meaning given by section   155A.

"relevant international agreement" means the following:

  (a)   the Ramsar Convention;

  (b)   the Biodiversity Convention;

  (c)   the Desertification Convention;

  (d)   the Bonn Convention;

  (e)   CAMBA;

  (f)   JAMBA;

  (g)   ROKAMBA;

  (h)   the Climate Change Convention;

  (i)   any other international convention to which Australia is a party and that is:

  (i)   relevant to the use and management of the Basin water resources; and

  (ii)   prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this paragraph.

"relevant State Minister" , for a Basin State, means:

  (a)   the Minister of the Crown for the State who is responsible for the administration of the State's water management law; or

  (b)   if there is more than one such Minister--the Minister of the Crown for the State that the Premier of the State advises the Authority, in writing, is the relevant State Minister for the State.

"river flow control work" has the meaning given by section   8.

"River Murray Operations assets" has the meaning given by subsection   239D(2).

"River Murray System" has the meaning given by subsection   86A(3).

"ROKAMBA" means the Agreement with the Government of the Republic of Korea on the Protection of Migratory Birds done at Canberra on 6   December 2006.

Note:   The text of the Agreement is set out in Australian Treaty Series 2007 No.   24. In 2007, the text of a Convention in the Australian Treaty Series was accessible through the Australian Treaties Library on the AustLII website (www.austlii.edu.au).

"salinity work" means a work to reduce, or maintain, salinity levels in the Murray - Darling Basin.

"State" (except in section   18B) includes the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory.

"State water management law" means:

  (a)   the Water Management Act 2000 , the Water Act 1912 and the Rivers and Foreshores Improvement Act 1948 of New South Wales; or

  (b)   the Water Act 1989 and Parts   4 and 5 of the Catchment and Land Protection Act 1994 of Victoria; or

  (c)   the Water Act 2000 of Queensland; or

  (d)   the Natural Resources Management Act 2004 of South Australia; or

  (e)   the Water Resources Act 2007 of the Australian Capital Territory; or

  (f)   a law of a Basin State, or a part of such a law, that:

  (i)   is relevant to the management of Basin water resources; and

  (ii)   is prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this definition;

and includes regulations, and other instruments, made under those laws.

"State water sharing arrangement" has the meaning given by subsection   86D(4).

"surface water" includes:

  (a)   water in a watercourse, lake or wetland; and

  (b)   any water flowing over or lying on land:

  (i)   after having precipitated naturally; or

  (ii)   after having risen to the surface naturally from underground.

"take" water from a water resource means to remove water from, or to reduce the flow of water in or into, the water resource including by any of the following means:

  (a)   pumping or siphoning water from the water resource;

  (b)   stopping, impeding or diverting the flow of water in or into the water resource;

  (c)   releasing water from the water resource if the water resource is a wetland or lake;

  (d)   permitting water to flow from the water resource if the water resource is a well or watercourse;

and includes storing water as part of, or in a way that is ancillary to, any of the processes or activities referred to in paragraphs   (a) to (d).

"temporary diversion provision" has the meaning given by item   7 of the table in subsection   22(1).

"thing" includes a substance, and a thing in electronic or magnetic form.

"total Basin adjustment percentage" has the meaning given by subsections   23A(5) and (6).

"tradeable water rights" means:

  (a)   water access rights; or

  (b)   water delivery rights; or

  (c)   irrigation rights.

"transitional asset" has the meaning given by subsection   239C(3).

"transitional instrument" has the meaning given by subsection   239N(4).

"transitional liability" has the meaning given by subsection   239F(3).

"transitional water resource plan" has the meaning given by section   241.

"Upper Murrumbidgee River" means the waters of the Murrumbidgee River upstream of the Burrinjuck Dam.

"water access entitlement" means a perpetual or ongoing entitlement, by or under a law of a State, to exclusive access to a share of the water resources of a water resource plan area.

"water access right" :

  (a)   means any right conferred by or under a law of a State to do either or both of the following:

  (i)   to hold water from a water resource;

  (ii)   to take water from a water resource; and

  (b)   without limiting paragraph   (a), includes the following rights of the kind referred to in that paragraph:

  (i)   stock and domestic rights;

  (ii)   riparian rights;

  (iii)   a water access entitlement;

  (iv)   a water allocation; and

  (c)   includes any other right in relation to the taking or use of water that is prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this paragraph.

"water accounting period" for a water resource plan area has the meaning given by item   2 of the table in subsection   22(1).

"water allocation" means the specific volume of water allocated to water access entitlements in a given water accounting period.

"water charge rules" has the meaning given by section   92.

"water charging objectives and principles" means the objectives set out in Schedule   2.

"watercourse" :

  (a)   means a river, creek or other natural watercourse (whether modified or not) in which water is contained or flows (whether permanently or from time to time); and

  (b)   includes:

  (i)   a dam or reservoir that collects water flowing in a watercourse; and

  (ii)   a lake or wetland through which water flows; and

  (iii)   a channel into which the water of a watercourse has been diverted; and

  (iv)   part of a watercourse; and

  (v)   an estuary through which water flows.

"water delivery right" means a right to have water delivered by an infrastructure operator.

"water-dependent ecosystem" means a surface water ecosystem or a ground water ecosystem, and its natural components and processes, that depends on periodic or sustained inundation, waterlogging or significant inputs of water for its ecological integrity and includes an ecosystem associated with:

  (a)   a wetland; or

  (b)   a stream and its floodplain; or

  (c)   a lake or a body of water (whether fresh or saline); or

  (d)   a salt marsh; or

  (e)   an estuary; or

  (f)   a karst system; or

  (g)   a ground water system;

and a reference to a water - dependent ecosystem includes a reference to the biodiversity of the ecosystem.

"Water for the Environment Special Account" means the special account established by section   86AB.

"water information" has the meaning given by section   125.

"water market rules" has the meaning given by section   97.

"water resource" means:

  (a)   surface water or ground water; or

  (b)   a watercourse, lake, wetland or aquifer (whether or not it currently has water in it);

and includes all aspects of the water resource (including water, organisms and other components and ecosystems that contribute to the physical state and environmental value of the water resource).

"water resource plan" for a water resource plan area means a plan that:

  (a)   provides for the management of the water resource plan area; and

  (b)   is either:

  (i)   accredited under section   63; or

  (ii)   adopted under section   69;

but only to the extent to which the water resource plan:

  (c)   relates to Basin water resources; and

  (d)   makes provision in relation to the matters that the Basin Plan requires a water resource plan to include.

"water resource plan area" means an area that:

  (a)   contains part of the Basin water resources; and

  (b)   is specified in the Basin Plan as an area that is a water resource plan area for the purposes of this Act.

Note:   See item   2 of the table in subsection   22(1).

"water resources" of a water resource plan area has the meaning given by item   2 of the table in subsection   22(1).

"water service infrastructure" has the meaning given by subsection   7(3).

"water trading rules" means the rules included in the Basin Plan under item   12 of the table in subsection   22(1).

"wetland" has the same meaning as in the Ramsar Convention.

  (2)   The following principles are principles of ecologically sustainable development :

  (a)   decision - making processes should effectively integrate both long - term and short - term economic, environmental, social and equitable considerations;

  (b)   if there are threats of serious or irreversible environmental damage, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing measures to prevent environmental degradation;

  (c)   the principle of inter - generational equity--that the present generation should ensure that the health, biodiversity and productivity of the environment is maintained or enhanced for the benefit of future generations;

  (d)   the conservation of biodiversity and ecological integrity should be a fundamental consideration in decision - making;

  (e)   improved valuation, pricing and incentive mechanisms should be promoted.


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