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CIVIL LAW (WRONGS) ACT 2002


TABLE OF PROVISIONS

           Long Title

CHAPTER 1--PRELIMINARY

   1.      Name of Act  
   2.      Dictionary  
   3.      Notes  
   4.      Offences against Act—application of Criminal Code etc  

CHAPTER 2--PROVISIONS APPLYING TO WRONGS GENERALLY

   PART 2.1--GOOD SAMARITANS

   5.      Protection of good samaritans from liability  

   PART 2.2--VOLUNTEERS

   6.      Definitions—pt 2.2  
   7.      Meaning of community work  
   8.      Protection of volunteers from liability  
   9.      Liability of community organisations for volunteers  
   10.     Territory may assume liability of community organisations for  
   11.     Directions to community organisations about insurance etc  

   PART 2.2A--FOOD DONORS

   11A.    Definitions—pt 2.2A  
   11B.    Protection of food donors from liability  

   PART 2.3--APOLOGIES

   12.     Application—pt 2.3  
   13.     Meaning of apology in pt 2.3  
   14.     Effect of apology on liability etc  

   PART 2.4--SURVIVAL OF ACTIONS ON DEATH

   15.     Effect of death on certain causes of action  
   16.     Damages in surviving cause of action  
   17.     If person liable dies before or at time of damage  
   18.     Saving of rights additional to pt 2.4  

   PART 2.5--PROCEEDINGS AGAINST AND CONTRIBUTIONS BETWEEN WRONGDOERS

   19.     Definitions—pt 2.5  
   20.     Each of several wrongdoers can be sued  
   21.     Right of contribution  
   22.     Effect of pt 2.5  

CHAPTER 3--LIABILITY FOR DEATH OR INJURY

   PART 3.1--WRONGFUL ACT OR OMISSION CAUSING DEATH

           Division 3.1.1--Preliminary—liability for death

   23.     Definitions—pt 3.1  

           Division 3.1.2--Liability and damages for death

   24.     Liability for a person's death  
   25.     Damages for a person's death  
   26.     Amounts not taken into account in assessing damages for death  
   27.     Contributory negligence not defence in relation to death  

   PART 3.2--MENTAL HARM

   32.     Definitions—pt 3.2  
   33.     Personal injury arising from mental or nervous shock  
   34.     Mental harm—duty of care  
   35.     Mental harm—damages  
   36.     Extensions of liability under pt 3.2 in certain cases  

   PART 3.3--EXCLUSION OF LIABILITY FOR TERRORISM-ASSOCIATED RISKS

   37.     Meaning of act of terrorism for pt 3.3  
   38.     Limitation of liability for acts of terrorism  

CHAPTER 4--NEGLIGENCE

   PART 4.1--PRELIMINARY--NEGLIGENCE

   40.     Definitions—ch 4  
   41.     Application—ch 4  

   PART 4.2--DUTY OF CARE

   42.     Standard of care  
   43.     Precautions against risk—general principles  
   44.     Precautions against risk—other principles  

   PART 4.3--CAUSATION

   45.     General principles  
   46.     Burden of proof  

   PART 4.4--OTHER PROVISIONS--NEGLIGENCE

   47.     Contributory negligence can defeat claim  
   48.     Remedy available if claim fraudulent  

CHAPTER 5--PERSONAL INJURIES CLAIMS—PRE-COURT PROCEDURES

   PART 5.1--PRELIMINARY--CH 5

   49.     Definitions—ch 5  
   50.     Application—ch 5  

   PART 5.2--CLAIMS PROCEDURES

   51.     Notice of claim  
   52.     Preliminary response to claimant  
   53.     Acknowledgment that proper respondent not admission of liability  
   54.     Respondent's response to notice of claim  
   55.     Claimant may add later respondents  
   56.     Multiple respondents  
   57.     Respondent may add someone else as contributor  
   58.     Contributor's response  
   59.     Claimant's failure to give complying notice of claim  
   60.     Legal disabilities  
   61.     Respondent must attempt to resolve claim  
   62.     Consequences of noncompliance with pt 5.2  

   PART 5.3--OBLIGATIONS OF PARTIES TO GIVE DOCUMENTS AND INFORMATION

   63.     Purpose—pt 5.3  
   64.     Claimant to give documents etc to respondent  
   65.     Respondent and claimant may jointly arrange for expert report  
   66.     Cost of expert report obtained by agreement  
   67.     Examination by expert if no agreement  
   68.     Respondent to give documents etc to claimant  
   69.     Respondent to give documents etc to contributor  
   70.     Contributor to give documents to respondent  
   71.     Alternative provision if more than 200 pages  

   PART 5.4--OTHER PROVISIONS--PRE-COURT PROCEDURES

   72.     Nondisclosure of documents etc—client legal privilege  
   73.     Nondisclosure of documents etc—suspected fraud  
   74.     Offence not to disclose particular material  
   75.     Consequences of failure to give document  
   76.     Privilege generally for documents etc  
   77.     No requirement to give documents etc if already in other party's  
   78.     Court's power to enforce compliance with pt 5.2 and pt 5.3  
   79.     Need for urgent proceeding  
   80.     False or misleading statements  

CHAPTER 7--DAMAGES

   PART 7.1--DAMAGES FOR PERSONAL INJURIES--EXCLUSIONS AND LIMITATIONS

   92.     Definitions—pt 7.1  
   93.     Application—pt 7.1  
   94.     Exclusion of liability if conduct an offence  
   95.     Presumption of contributory negligence—injured person intoxicated  
   96.     Presumption of contributory negligence—injured person relying on intoxicated  
   97.     Presumption of contributory negligence—injured person not wearing seatbelt  
   98.     Damages for loss of earnings  
   99.     Tariffs for damages for non-economic loss  

   PART 7.2--LOSS OF CAPACITY TO PERFORM DOMESTIC SERVICES

   100.    Damages for loss of capacity to perform domestic services  

   PART 7.3--CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE

   101.    Definitions—pt 7.3  
   102.    Apportionment of liability—contributory negligence  
   103.    Joint wrongdoers  
   104.    Claims by third parties—contributory negligence  
   105.    Pleading of statutory limitation period—contributory  

CHAPTER 7A--PROPORTIONATE LIABILITY

   107A.   Definitions—ch 7A  
   107B.   Application of ch 7A—apportionable claims  
   107C.   Meaning of consumer claim—ch 7A  
   107D.   Concurrent wrongdoers  
   107E.   Certain wrongdoers not to have benefit of apportionment  
   107F.   Proportionate liability for apportionable claims  
   107G.   Defendant to tell claimant about concurrent wrongdoers  
   107H.   Contribution not recoverable from defendant  
   107I.   Subsequent proceeding by claimant  
   107J.   Including non-party concurrent wrongdoer  
   107K.   Ch 7A does not affect certain other liability  

CHAPTER 8--LIABILITY OF PUBLIC AND OTHER AUTHORITIES

   108.    Application—ch 8  
   109.    Definitions—ch 8  
   110.    Principles about resources, responsibilities etc of public or other  
   111.    Proceedings against public or other authorities based on breach of statutory  
   112.    When public or other authority not liable for failure to exercise regulatory  
   113.    Special nonfeasance protection in relation to roads etc  
   114.    Exercise of function or decision to exercise does not create duty  

CHAPTER 8A--INSTITUTIONAL CHILD ABUSE

   114A.   Meaning of child abuse and child abuse claim—ch  
   114B.   Meaning of related trust—ch 8A  
   114C.   Unincorporated bodies  
   114D.   Unincorporated body may nominate defendant  
   114E.   Court may appoint related trust as defendant  
   114F.   Proceedings may be commenced before nomination or appointment  
   114G.   Liability of trustee if nominated or appointed as defendant  
   114H.   Defendant may rely on defences and immunities etc  

CHAPTER 9--DEFAMATION

   PART 9.1--PRELIMINARY--DEFAMATION

   115.    Objects—ch 9  
   116.    Definitions—ch 9  
   117.    Ch 9 binds Crown  

   PART 9.2--GENERAL PRINCIPLES

           Division 9.2.1--Defamation and the general law

   118.    Tort of defamation  
   119.    Distinction between slander and libel abolished  

           Division 9.2.2--Causes of action for defamation

   120.    Single cause of action for multiple defamatory imputations in same  
   121.    Certain corporations do not have cause of action for defamation  
   122.    No cause of action for defamation of, or against, deceased  

           Division 9.2.3--Choice of law

   123.    Choice of law for defamation proceedings  

   PART 9.3--RESOLUTION OF CIVIL DISPUTES WITHOUT LITIGATION

           Division 9.3.1--Offers to make amends

   124.    Application—div 9.3.1  
   125.    Publisher may make offer to make amends  
   126.    When offer to make amends may be made  
   127.    Content of offer to make amends  
   128.    Withdrawal of offer to make amends  
   129.    Effect of acceptance of offer to make amends  
   130.    Effect of failure to accept reasonable offer to make amends  
   131.    Inadmissibility of evidence of certain statements and admissions  

           Division 9.3.2--Apologies

   132.    Effect of apology on liability for defamation  

   PART 9.4--LITIGATION OF CIVIL DISPUTES

           Division 9.4.1--General

   133.    Leave required for further proceedings in relation to publication of same defamatory  

           Division 9.4.2--Defences

   134.    Scope of defences under general law and other law not limited  
   135.    Defence of justification  
   136.    Defence of contextual truth  
   137.    Defence of absolute privilege  
   138.    Defence for publication of public documents  
   139.    Defences of fair report of proceedings of public concern  
   139A.   Defence of qualified privilege for provision of certain information  
   139B.   Defences of honest opinion  
   139C.   Defence of innocent dissemination  
   139D.   Defence of triviality  

           Division 9.4.3--Remedies

   139E.   Damages to bear rational relationship to harm  
   139F.   Damages for non-economic loss limited  
   139G.   State of mind of defendant generally not relevant to awarding  
   139H.   Exemplary or punitive damages cannot be awarded  
   139I.   Factors in mitigation of damages  
   139J.   Damages for multiple causes of action may be assessed as single sum  

           Division 9.4.4--Costs

   139K.   Costs in defamation proceedings  

   PART 9.5--MISCELLANEOUS--CH 9

   139L.   Proof of publication  
   139M.   Proof of convictions for offences  
   139N.   Incriminating answers, documents or things  

CHAPTER 10--TRESPASS

   141.    Defence to action for trespass to land  
   142.    Action for use and occupation of land—amount of damages  

CHAPTER 11--MITIGATION OF STRICT LIABILITY

   PART 11.1--TRAVELLER ACCOMMODATION PROVIDERS LIABILITY

           Division 11.1.1--Preliminary—pt 11.1

   143.    Purpose—pt 11.1  
   144.    Definitions—pt 11.1  
   145.    Meaning of traveller accommodation  
   146.    Meaning of accommodation provider  
   147.    Meaning of innkeeper's liability  
   148.    Meaning of guest  
   149.    Meaning of property of guest  

           Division 11.1.2--Liability of accommodation providers

   150.    Application—div 11.1.2  
   151.    Limitation on strict liability under innkeeper's liability  
   152.    Circumstances when limitation does not apply  
   153.    Safe custody facilities  
   154.    Notice about pt 11.1  

   PART 11.2--COMMON CARRIERS

           Division 11.2.1--Preliminary—common carriers

   155.    Purpose—pt 11.2  
   156.    Definitions—pt 11.2  

           Division 11.2.2--When common law liability of carriers not affected

   157.    Certain things not protected by pt 11.2  
   158.    Public notices by carrier not to affect liability  

           Division 11.2.3--Liability of common carriers for certain goods worth more than $20

   159.    Liability of carriers for certain goods worth more than $20  
   160.    Notice of increased charge for transport of certain goods  
   161.    Receipt of carrier for increased charge  
   162.    Carrier only liable for proven amount for certain goods  

           Division 11.2.4--Liability of common carriers for certain animals

   163.    Definitions—div 11.2.4  
   164.    Liability of carriers for certain animals  
   165.    Notice of increased charge for transport of certain animals  
   166.    Carrier only liable for proven amount for certain animals  

           Division 11.2.5--Notice, condition or declaration of carrier

   167.    Carrier liable for neglect or default despite notice etc  

CHAPTER 12--OTHER LIABILITY PROVISIONS

   PART 12.1--OCCUPIERS LIABILITY

   168.    Liability of occupiers  

   PART 12.2--LIABILITY FOR DAMAGE CAUSED BY ANIMALS

   169.    Evidence of breach of duty for animals  

   PART 12.3--LIABILITY FOR FIRES ACCIDENTALLY BEGUN

   170.    Actions do not lie for damage caused by accidental fires  
   171.    Contract between landlord and tenant not affected  

CHAPTER 13--MISREPRESENTATION

   172.    Definitions—ch 13  
   173.    Removal of certain bars to rescission for misrepresentation  
   174.    Damages for misrepresentation  
   175.    Damages instead of rescission for misrepresentation  
   176.    Exclusion clauses—misrepresentation  
   177.    Misrepresentation in trade or commerce an offence  
   178.    Employer etc liable for misrepresentation  
   179.    Prosecutions for misrepresentation  

CHAPTER 14--LIMITATIONS ON LEGAL COSTS

   PART 14.1--MAXIMUM COSTS FOR CERTAIN PERSONAL INJURY DAMAGES CLAIMS

   180.    Definitions—pt 14.1  
   181.    Maximum costs for claims of $50 000 or less  
   182.    Costs incurred after offer of compromise not accepted  
   183.    Exclusion of costs unnecessarily incurred etc  
   184.    Court discretion to allow additional costs  
   185.    Apportionment of costs between lawyers  

   PART 14.2--COSTS IN DAMAGES CLAIMS IF NO REASONABLE PROSPECTS OF SUCCESS

   186.    Definitions—pt 14.2  
   187.    Application—pt 14.2  
   188.    Certificate that claim or defence has reasonable prospects of success  
   189.    Costs order against lawyer acting without reasonable prospects of  
   190.    Onus on lawyer to show facts provided reasonable prospects of  

CHAPTER 15--MISCELLANEOUS

   PART 15.1--MEDIATION AND NEUTRAL EVALUATION

   191.    Purpose of pt 15.1 etc  
   192.    Meaning of mediation, neutral evaluation etc  
   193.    Who can be a mediator  
   194.    Who can be an evaluator  
   195.    Referral by tribunal for mediation or neutral evaluation  
   196.    Duty of parties to take part in neutral evaluations  
   197.    Costs of neutral evaluation  
   198.    Agreements and arrangements arising from mediation sessions  
   199.    Privilege for neutral evaluations  
   200.    Secrecy by evaluators  
   201.    Protection from liability for evaluators  

   PART 15.3--ATTACHMENT OF INSURANCE MONEY

   206.    Amount of liability charge on insurance money payable against  
   207.    Enforcement of charge on insurance money  
   208.    Protection of insurer for pt 15.3 charge  
   209.    Certain other provisions not affected by pt 15.3  

   PART 15.4--ABOLITION OF CERTAIN COMMON LAW ACTIONS, RULES AND REMEDIES

   210.    Abolition of seduction, enticement and harbouring  
   211.    Abolition of rule about unity of spouses  
   212.    Abolition of action of cattle-trespass  
   213.    Abolition of distress damage feasant  
   214.    Abolition of rules relating exclusively to liability for damage by  
   215.    Partial abolition of rule in Rylands v Fletcher  
   216.    Abolition of rule of common employment  
   217.    Abolition of husband's liability for wife's torts and premarital  
   218.    Abolition of action for loss of consortium  
   219.    Abolition of rule in Cavalier v Pope  
   220.    Partial abolition of Mocambique rule  
   221.    Abolition of torts of maintenance and champerty  

   PART 15.5--OTHER PROVISIONS

   222.    Approved forms  
   222A.   Determination of fees  
   223.    Regulation-making power  
           SCHEDULE 1
           SCHEDULE 2
           SCHEDULE 3
           SCHEDULE 4
           SCHEDULE 5
           DICTIONARY
           ENDNOTES


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